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Vet 1100 Blood

Define Blood Transfusion: The process of transferring whole blood or components of it from a donor to a recipient
What is the purpose of transferring blood? It is used to restore lost blood, to improve clotting time, to improve the ability of blood to deliver oxygenated blood to the body's tissues
Define erythrocyte Mature red blood cell
D: hemoglobin blood protein which transfers O2
D: Serum Liquid portion of blood
D: Plasma Yellow/straw protein of blood which transports nutrients, hormones, waste products, and clotting factors to the body's tissues
D: Hemolysis Breakdown of red blood cells ((Hem/o=blood -lysis=breakdown))
D: Anemia Less than normal levels of erythrocytes or hemoglobin ((determined by a reduced PCV))
D: Antigen A substance such a bacteria, viruses, and pollen, which produce an immune response because they are foreign to the body. "A substance the body regards as foreign."
D: Antibody A disease fighting protein produced by the body in response to the presence of a specific antigen.
D: Allergy An overreaction by the body to a particular antigen.
D: Anaphylaxis A severe response to a foreign substance. Develops acutely and may include tachycardia, swelling, blockage of the airways, etc.
D: Agglutination Clumping together of cells of particles...sign of IMHA (Immune Mediated Hemolytic Anemia)
D: Rouleax Erythrocytes stacked like coins; a normal finding in equines
D: Autoimmune Disease A disorder in which the body makes antibodies direct against ( attack) themselves.
Common physical finding of anemia are lethargy, weakness, pale mucous membranes, tachycardia, tachypnea, and a bounding pulse
In severe anemic state, a low grade systolic flow murmmer may occur secondary to: decreased blood viscosity
Prolonged tissue CRT is suggestive of: compromised tissue perfusion and shock, but may be difficult to assess in a anemic patient
Weak and rapid pulse suggests: severe dehydration and poor perfusion; a bounding pulse suggests anemia
Coagulation disorders are rare in ______ Cats
Most bleeding disorders in veterinary medicine are seen in ___________ patients Canine
Primary coagulation disorders are rare and are usually the result of an inherited defect in the production of coagulation factors
The most common inherited coagulation disorder in domestic animals is Von Willebrand's disease
Von Willibrand's disease is most seen affecting ____________, but may also be seen in __________ and __________ Doberman dogs, may also be seen in rabbits and swine
______________ refers to a decreased number of platelets and is the most common bleeding disorder of hemostasis Thrombocytopenia
_____________ can occur as a result of bone marrow depression that reduces the production of platelets, or autoimmune disease that increases the rate of platelet destruction Thrombocytopenia
D: hemostasis the control of bleeding
D: DIC Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation
DIC is often seen in _______ cases, as well as a large number of _________ ___________ trauma, infectious diseases
DIC (disseminated intravascular coagulation) may manifest as systemic __________ or microvascular ___________ systemic HEMORRHAGE or microvascular THROMBOSIS
Most DIC patients have elevation in __ or more coagulation tests, as well as elevated _________ and ___________ THREE or more coagulation tests, as well as elevated FIBROGEN and THROMBOCYTOPENIA
_____________ may be seen on the blood film because of the intravascular ___________ of erythrocytes Schistocytes may be seen on the blood film b/c of the DESTRUCTION of erythrocytes (RBC's)
D: petechia small, pinpoint homerrhages often seen on the pinna and inguinal area
D: ecchymoses small hemorrhagic spot in the skin or mucous membranes forming a nonelevated, rounded or irregular, blue or purplish patch (ie. briuse)
D: epistaxis nosebleed
Clinical presentation of DIC may include (3), and prolonged bleeding following __________ or _________ petechia, ecchymosis, epistaxis; and prolonged bleeding following TRAUMA or SURGERY
D: Thrombus blood clot
D: Hematuria blood in the urine
Dogs have at least __ blood groups 19
D: DEA Dog Erythrocyte Antigen
Canine blood types are noted by its ___ and a _______ DEA and a NUMBER
This is the most common canine blood type DEA 1.1+
Dogs with the blood type ____ are considered to be the universal __________ 1.1+ = canine universal RECIPIENT
Canine blood type 1.1+ is the equivalent to a human blood type _____ 1.1+ is equivalent to human blood type A positive
Canine blood types ___ and ___ are said to be the universal ________ 1.1- or 1.2- = universal DONORS
Canine blood types ____ and ____ are simillar to human blood type A negative 1.1- and 1.2-
Cats are said to have __ blood types; __, __, and ___ Cats have 3 blood types; A, B, and AB
The most common feline blood type is A
Many purebred cats have __ blood type B
Most cats in North America, as well as DSH/DLH have __ blood type A
European cats have a higher percentage of __ blood type B
Cats have naturally occuring ______________ against the blood-type they lack, therefor there is no universal feline blood _______ Alloantibodies, no universal feline DONOR
Type AB cats can receive __ or __ blood with no clinical recations A or B
Cats may have a ________ reaction to the first transfusion Severe
Canine blood donors need to meet __________________ (9) prerequisites to donate blood Be in good physical condition, be screened for blood transmissible diseases, over a certain body weight, UTD on vaccines, be on HW prevention, have an adequate predonation PCV, must have a good temperment
Fresh whole blood contains a mixture of cellular components which includes (3) and plasma components (?) Erythrocytes, leukocytes, and platelets; plasma = liquid portion containing proteins and nutrients)
Fresh whole blood must be transfused within __ hours 4
Fresh whole blood is used to treat (6) hemorrhagic shock, bleeding disorders (due to thrombocytopenia or clotting factor deficiencies), anemia, surgical hemorrhage, and IMHA
D: IMHA Immune Mediated Hemolytic Anemia
What are two disadvantages of whole blood transfusions? 1. Limited resources - so separation of WB components permits a single donation to help mult patients; 2. Volume overload & pulmo edema vs component therapy
Packed Red Blood Cells is refrigerated _____ ______ that is ______________ and the ______ is removed Packed RBC's is refrigerated WHOLE BLOOD that is CENTRIFUGED and the PLASMA is removed
Packed RBC's is primarily used in patients with decreased _______ carrying capabilities Oxygen
Packed RBC's would be used in patients with _____ anemias and __-________ anemias hemolytic and non-regenerative anemias
D: ADSOL - this is used to prolong storage life, maintain the cells, and prevent hemolysis Adenine, Dextrose, NaCl, and mannitol
Packed RBC's are only good for about __ days 30
An alternative to Packed RBC's is Oxyglobin
________ is bovine hemoglobin solution Oxyglobin
3 advantages of oxyglobin 1. No need for blood typing or crossmatching 2. Shelf life up to 3 years 3. Transfusion reactions not generally seen in canine patients
3 disadvantages of oxyglobin 1. Cats may show signs of pulmo edema 2. A colloid solution and may cause volume overload if given to cardiac or renal patients 3. Discoloration of serum, urine, and mucous membranes (yellowish-brown)
Plasma contains (3) coagulation factors, proteins, and platelets
Plasma transfusions may be used to treat (3) warafrin toxicity, DIC, and inherited coagulation factor deficiencies
Plasma transfusions are used primarily for (5) volume expansion, hypoproteinemia, pancreatitis, sepsis, and liver toxicities
What are the three varieties of transfusable plasma Fresh Frozen Plasma (FFP), Frozen Plasma (FP), Cryoprecipitate
Fresh Frozen Plasma must be frozen before __ _____ of donation 8 hours
Fresh Frozen Plasma contains the clotting factors _ & ___, ________, and __ _________ factor clotting factors V (5) & VIII (8), albumin, and Von Willebrand's factor
Frozen Plasma is frozen _ ____ after donation 8 hours
Frozen Plasma does not contain factors _, __, or ___ _______ factor FP does NOT contain clotting factors V, VIII, or Von Willebrand's factor
What are two diseases NOT treatable with FP Hemophilia and VW disease
Cryoprecipitate contains everything ___ does only in a much _____ volume FFP, smaller volume
Blood in Heparin or Sodium Citrate must be used within __ hours b/c ? 48 hours, because of the lack of RBC preservative
D: ACD / CPD Acid Citrate Dextrose Citrate Phosphate Dextrose
Refrigerated blood with preservatives may be stored for __-__ days 14-21 days
Blood with CPD-1 (added RBC preservative adenosine) may be stored for __-__ days 35-45 days
Packed RBC's without preservatives may be refrigerated and stored for __ days 21 days
Fresh or Frozen Plasma (FFP) can be stored at -4 - -22 degrees for up to _____ one year
Excessive warming (+50 degrees celcuis) when thawing FFP will cause hemolysis
All blood products should be given at ____ (temp) using an __-____ filter to remove _____ and ____ room temperature, using an IN-LINE filter to remove DEBRIS and CLOTS
Prior to and during transfusions, IV lines should be flushed using a __%____ solution 0.9% NaCl solution
Platelet administration sets should never contain _____ because platelets will _____ to it latex, platelets will adhere to it
Initial administration rate should be ____ ml/kg for the first __ minutes, then __-__ ml/kg/hr 0.25ml/kg for first 15 minutes, then 5-10 ml/kg/hr
Acute signs of a negative transfusion reaction are hypotension, vomiting, salivation, muscle tremors, tachycardia, fever, and hives
_-__ days post transfusion, the recipients body will destroy the RBC's 7-10 days
A key indicator of delayed reaction is an unexpected ____ in PCV _-__ days post transfusion Drop in PCV 2-21 days post transfusion
Reactions may be caused by (3) incompatibilities leukocyte, platelet, or plasma protein
The use of ________ 30 minutes prior to a transfusion may reduce reactions antihistamines
Nonimmunologic reactions are principally due to vascular overload
Signs of vascular overload include (4) coughing, increased resp rate, resp distress, and vomiting
evidence of preexisting cardiac dysfunction = a reduced transfusion rate of 1 ml/kg/hr
Why should a patient be withheld from food and water access prior to transfusions? Because vomiting may occur
Once blood type is known, the donor's ___ and _____ should be cross matched with the patients ___ and _____ for incompatabilities RBC's and Serum
Created by: ahaggan001



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