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Equine Nutrition MT2

Cal Poly Equine Nutrition, ASCI 346 - Midterm #2

QuestionAnswer
What are the 10 dietary essential amino acids? Phenylalaline Valine Threonine Tryptophan Isoleucine Methione Histadine Arginine Leucine Lysine
Formula for determining crude protein [N] x 6.25 = CP
What is "NPN"? Non protein nitrogen
What is coprophagy? Consumption of feces. This may help to recover nutrients.
Digestion of crude protein begins in the ______ and _______. Crude protein is then absorbed in the ______. Digestion: stomach & SI Absorbed: illeum
Protein requirements in the horse for: -minimal -average -elevated Minimal: 1.08 CP/BW/KG/Day Average: 1.26 CP/BW/KG/Da Elevated: 1.44 CP/BW/KG/Da
How to calculate Lysine requirement in relation to CP. 4.3% x g CP
Differences in CP for pregnant mares? From fertilization to 4 months: no change 4 mo to birth: increased CP requirement
General Energy provided by fatty acids. 9.5 kg
How many times more energy do fatty acids provide over CHO and proteins? 2.25
2 main dietary essential FAs Linoleic - 18:2 Linolenic - 18:3
Where can we find linoleic acid? Sunflower and corn oil
Where can we find linolenic acid? Flaxseed, linseed, and cold-water fish
Seed and fruit oils (like corn oil) are more or less palatable? More
Rice bran, wheat germ, and animal sources are more or less palatable? Less
As you increase fat, you decrease ___, ____, and ____. Decrease Amino Acids, Crude Protein, and Starch
True or false: there cannot be a EFA deficiency in a horse. True
NRC suggests ____% linoletic acid on a DMB. .5%
Too much fat can have a negative effect on ______. fermentation
What is the average airspeed velocity of an unladen swallow? Depends - African, or European Swallow? =D Made you laugh.
What is Nutritional Secondary Hyperparathyroidism? (besides a very long name...) A metabolic bone disease that results in bone demineralization. At the basic level, it results from hypocalcemia.
Describe two dietary factors that can lead to hypocalcemia and consequently, Nutritional Secondary Hyperparathyroidism. -Deficient Ca intake in the diet AND/OR -XS Phosporus intake (side note: oxalates can reduce Ca+ availability)
Explain the results of decreased serum Ca levels in relation to Nutritional Secondary Hyperparathyroidism. Decreased serum Ca levels = increased parathyroid hormone = increased bone resorption (breakdown of bone) = increased renal Phosphorus excretion.
Cereal grains are a poor source of _____ and _____. Calcium and Lysine
What are the predisposed dietary factors that cause Enterolithiasis? -Increased mineral content and alkaline pH w/in the colon -high intake of N (protein), P, and Mg -free ammonium combines w/phosphorus and Mg causing struvirte crystals -ALFALFA HAY: xs free ammonium + xs Mg + more digestibility (decreased motility)
What are management factors that can cause Enterolithiasis? -restriction to indoor/confined space -feeding rate
What feeds (when fed in excess) can assist in causing Enterolithiasis? -Alfalfa hay (high in protein, Mg) -Wheat, rice, and rye brans (high in protein, Mg, P)
What the are the "water factors" that can lead to Enterolithiasis? -alkaline pH -xs mg (in our area)
Does a higher (alkaline) or lower (acidic) pH in the GIT create the potential for Enterolithiasis? alkaline
What are the exercise factors that lead to Enterolithiasis? -decreased activity -decreased GIT motility -feeding less frequently (=decreased GIT motility)
True or false: there are genetic factors that can lead to Enterolithiasis? True
What can we do to decrease the possibility of Enterolithiasis? -Decrease: long stem alfalfa, bran as a supplement, alfalfa meal -Introduce lower digestible grass hays: decrease pH, increase gut motility -increase exercise -increase in the number of feedings -identify genetic lines
Water is good in the horse. Totally.
Total percentage composition of body water: 40% intracellular 20% extracellular 16% interstitial 4% plasma 1-2 % transcellular
3 water sources: -free sources -food water -metabolic water
Of Proteins, Lipids, and CHOs, which provides the most water? LIPIDS
How much water do the following provide (in g/substrate): -CHO -Lipids -Proteins CHO: .6 g/substrate LIPID: 1.12 Protein: .37
How much water is provided through metabolic water? .68 L/100 kg BW
5 different ways for water to be lost and how much is lost per day/100kg/BW) -Respiration (1.6-3.3L) -Perspiration (varies) -Uriniation (1/2 L) -Fecal Loss (largest, at 3-3.8L) -Lactation (my increase mares intake of water by 34-37%)
What screws with urination levels in the horse? Na+ and protein
What can increase water intake in the horse? -Increased fiber -increased Na -increased K
If horses decrease their food/DM intake, will water intake increase or decrease? Decrease.
How much water does the average horse consume? 5L/100kg/BW/day
Is there a change in water intake for horses that are pregnant? Nope.
High pectin levels mean increased or decreased mineral bioavailability? decreased.
There are two types of vitamins. What are they? Water and fat soluble.
Qualities of fat soluble vitamins. (5) -stored in fat -slow turnover -CAN accumulate over time -high toxicity risk -need fat in the diet to be absorbed
Qualities of water soluble vitamins (3). -excreted rapidly -lost in urine -limited storage
Why was the racehorse named Bad News? Because bad news travels fast.
What is the animal form of Vitamin A? Retinol - it has high toxicity risks.
What is the plant form of vitamin A? Beta Carotene
Which fat soluble vitamin NOT have a NRC requirement? Vitamin K (because the microbial organisms in the gut make it for the horse)
1mg B-carotene = ___ IU of Vit A 400
What is the recommended Vit A requirement for the horse? 30 IU/kg VW
What are possible issues with a Vit A deficiency? vision night blindness
How does vitamin D react with Ca? It stimulates absorption of Ca in the intestine.
VIT D requirement for horses: 6.6 IU/kg BW
Vitamin D2 is found in ____ sources while vitamin D3 is found in ____ sources. D2: plants D3: animals
Excess Vitamin D can lead to: -increased absorption of Ca in soft tissues = mineralization of organs
What is the upper safety limit of Vitamin D? 44 IU/kg BW
Which fat soluble vitamin is most labile (most susceptible to breakdown)? Vitamin E
Vit E is an ______, meaning it prevents oxidative damage in the cell. antioxidant
Vitamin E can be found naturally or synthesized. Naturally, it is found in.... RRR and alpha tocopherol (raise your hand if you have no idea what those are...)
Which vitamin requirement is based on the amount of fat in the diet? Vitamin E.
What does Vitamin K assist in? Blood clotting
What are the three source/forms of Vitamin K? -plants -chemical -microbial organisms
The four big fat soluble vitamins: -Vit A -Vit D -Vit K -Vit E
Created by: ahypnaro