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Swine Medicine

Veterinary Swine Medicine

What is a mature female pig that has had one or more litters called? Sow
What is a young female pig from birth to 1st parturition called? Gilt
What is a sexually intact male pig called? Boar
What is a castrated male pig called? Barrow
What is the term for parturition in pigs? Farrowing
How are sows housed? (2) Individual stalls Group pens
How are boars housed? (2) stalls individual pens
What is the most common method in breeding sows? AI
How is the boar semen prepared? Fresh semen used because boar semen does not freeze well Semen is collected on-site or obtained from boar stud
What is the term for breeding a single boar and sow when mating is observed? Hand mating
What is the term for when a boar is housed in a pen with a group of sows and mating may not be observed? Pen mating
What is the detection days for post-breeding a sow? 18-24 Average = 21 days
When can you diagnosis pregnancy post-breeding a sow? 4-6 weeks post-breeding
What is the gestation length of a sow? 114 days (3 months, 3 weeks, 3 days)
When are sows moved to the farrowing room? 2-7 days before due day (usually 1-2 days before hand)
Why are sows placed in farrowing crates? Reduces crushing losses
When are piglets weaned? 2-6 weeks old Usually around 3 weeks
When are pigs moved to the nursery? At ~3 weeks old/10+ lbs
What is a major concern when housing piglets? Hypothermia
How long do piglets remain in the nursery? Until 50+lbs (~7 weeks)
How long do pigs remain in the grow/finish barn? Until market weight (250-280+ lbs) (~100-120 days)
Name the production barns in order for breeding pigs. Breeding/Gestation --> Farrowing --> Nursery --> Finishing
What is the term for when all production stages of pig breeding are on the same site? Farrow-to-Finish
What is he term for when production stages of breeding pigs are on different sites? Multi-site Production
Which production procedure is more efficient? Farrow-to-Finish or Multi-site? Multi-site Production
What is a commercial Operation? Producing/growing pigs destined for slaughter
What is a Seedstock operation? Raising pigs sold to commercial producers for replacement animals (breeders) Not market animals
What is a Boar Stud operation? Collecting semen from boars
What is the term for the protocol to help prevent new diseases from being introduced to a farm? Bioexclusion
What is the term for the protocol to help prevent the spread of diseases on the farm that are already on that farm? Biomanagement
What is the term for the procedure to help stop any diseases that are on the from from spreading to other outside farms? Biocontainment
What is the most common way diseases are transmitted to a herd? pig-to-pig transmission
How long should new gilts/boars be isolated before entry into a herd? At least 30 days (60-90 days better)
What is the minimum distance hog operations should separate from other hog farms? At least 5 miles
What disease is of most concern when cats enter a hog barn? Toxoplasmosis
What is considered the most stressful stage of a pig's life? Weaning
By weaning, a piglet must ______ it's weight from birth. quadruple
What are the procedures (4) for pig "processing"? Iron injections Tail docking Tooth clipping Castration
Why do piglets need an iron injection? Sow milk does not provide adequate iron
Why is tail docking a common procedure in piglets? Reduces the incidence of "tail biting" in growing pigs (does not prevent it)
Why are male piglets castrated? To prevent "boar taint" (boar odor in pork products)
True or False: endemic mortality in piglets is often caused by disease False (often due to management issues)
What is a sudden deviation from normal levels of endemic pre-weaning mortality? Epidemic--often due to disease
What are the most common causes of pre-weaning mortality in pigs? Which one is most common? Crushing (most common) Starvation Chilling Disease (All are interrelated!)
When is the highest risk of crushing piglets? 1st 72 house after birth
What can piglet crushing be associated with? older parity sows Larger litters Weak/sick piglets
Describe the two main management procedures (2) to reduce starvation in piglets. Cross-fostering: moving piglets from a large litter to a sow with a small litter Split-suckling: remove half the litter to let other half suckle for 30min-1hour, then reverse process
What is an important factor to determine which agent is involved in piglets with diarrhea? Age of piglet
What is the age of onset in piglets for the following diseases? E. Coli Transmissible Gastroenteritis Coccidiosis Rotavirus E. Coli: < 12 hours Transmissible Gastroenteritis: 2 days Coccidiosis: 5 days Rotavirus: 5 days
What does E. Coli produce that causes clinical signs? Enterotoxins (ETEC)
What is the pathogenesis of E. Coli? 1) Bacteria are ingested and attach to small intestinal villi 2) Enterotoxins produced 3) Excessive secretion of fluid by crypt cells (alkalinic diarrhea)
What are the clinical signs of E. Coli in young piglets? (3) watery diarrhea dehydration may see high mortality
How should you prevent E. Coli? Minimize the challenge, maximize the immunity
True or False: Exposing gestating dams to farrowing room waste is a good way to increase immunity to E. coli. True
What environment is Coronavirus stable in that causes concern? stable when frozen
How is Transmissible Gastroenteritis (TGE) transmitted? (2) Oral or oronasal transmission
What is the pathogenesis of TGE? destroys small intestinal epithelial cells villous atrophy leads to malabsorptive diarrhea
Which parts of the intestine are mostly affected by TGE? jejunum and ileum
What age of piglets are susceptible to TGE? At what age is mortality the highest in TGE? All ages of pigs affected Mortality very high in pigs < 4 weeks old
What are the clinical signs of an acute TGE outbreak? vomiting diarrhea
How is TGE diagnosed? (4) gas and yellow fluid in the SI gross lesions of villous atrophy FAT on sections from SI ELISA test
What is the concern of sows infected with TGE? Sows that are ill and have all piglets die may not come back into estrus normally
What si the concern of boars infected with TGE? fever associated - can negatively impact semen quality
What is the common etiology of Coccidiosis? Isospora suis
Coccidiosis -- disinfectants highly resistant
What is the pathogenesis of Coccidiosis? (5) oocysts sporulate in 12 hours at farrowing room temperature ingested - passage through stomach cuases excystation sporozoites penetrate entercytes and replicate infections can be patent in 5 days causes mild erosion of villous epithelium
What are the clinical signs of Coccidiosis? (4) mild, creamy diarrhea beginning at 1-3 weeks of age high morbidity, low mortality low weaning weights, long haired pigs no response to antibiotics or vaccines
When may you see oocysts of coccidiosis in fecal floats? starting 2 days after onset of diarrhea
What are the signs of coccidiosis in a post mortem exam? fibrino-necrotic membrane in jejunum/ileum moderate villous atrophy mucosal smears
True or False: There is an aproved treatment for coccidiosis in swine False
Which is more important for removing coccidiosis from stalls: cleaning or disinfecting? cleaning
What is the most common group of Rotavirus that affects swine? Group A
True or False: Rotavirus is susceptible to disinfectants. False: very stable virus - resists disinfection
How is Rotavirus transmitted? oral infestion
What is the pathogenesis of Rotavirus? mild to moderate villous atrophy --> diarrhea
What are the clinical signs of Rotavirus? 1-6 weeks old pigs mild, watery diarrhea low mortality
Why is the vaccine for Rotavirus not commonly used on sows? common natural immunity
How is Clostridial Enteritis transmitted? shed by sows and consumed by piglets
What is the pathogenesis of Clostridial Enteritis? (3) bacteria attach to microvilli and produce necrotizing toxin toxin causes necrosis and epithelial desquamation bacteria can penetrate intestinal wall and enter peritoneal cavity
At what age are piglets usually affected by Clostridial Enteritis? < 1 week old
What types of Clostridial Enteritis case bloody diarrhea? Clostridium perfringens type C and type A
Clostridial Enteritis: _____ morbidity, _____ mortality high, high
How long do piglets survive with a Clostridial Enteritis infection? die in 4-8 hours
How is Clostridial Enteritis diagnosed? PM: necrosis and hemorrhage of SI, bloody fluid and gas in intestine Mucosal smear: gram-positive rods
When is the best time to administer antibiotics to piglets for survival? before the diarrhea starts
At what temperature should a pig nursery be kept at? 85 degrees
What product should the feed in a pig nursery be based on? milk
What is another name for Exudative Epidermitis? "Greasy Pig"
What is the etiology of Exudative Epidermitis? Staphylococcus hyicus
True or False: Staphylococcus hyicus is a normal inhabitant of pig skin. True
What is the pathogenesis of Exudative Epidermitis? (3) Requires skin wound to cause disease Produces exotoxin that attacks the stratum granulosum Can enter through damaged skin to cause systemic infection
What are the clinical signs of Exudative Epidermitis? Dark, crusty, greasy lesions skin is red and fissured under the crus Can be localized or generalized
Where do lesions usually appear first in Exudative Epidermitis? face
What are the clinical signs in Exudative Epidermitis is the infection becomes systemic? (3) depression off-feed death
How can you control Exudative Epidermitis outbreak? reduce humidity in barns clip needle teeth
What is the treatment of Exudative Epidermitis IM antibiotics (penicillin) Topical treatments Euthanize severely systemically ill pigs
What is the major concern of Streptococcal Meningitis? Potentially Zoonotic
How can you destroy Streptococcus suis? soaps and disinfectants can survive in environment for long periods in dust, manure, or dead pigs
What are the clinical signs of Streptococcal Meningitis? Neurological signs (ataxia, head tilt, circling, recumbency, paddling) Also associated with pneumonia, polyserositis, septicemia
How do you diagnose Streptococcal Meningitis? Post-mortem -Suppurative meningitis --Cloudiness at base of brain -Polyserositis -Endocarditis -Pneumonia Look for bacteria in brain smear Swab lesions for culture
What is the treatment for Streptococcal Meningitis? Remove affected pigs from pen Good nursing care IM antibiotics
Can you vaccinate for Streptococcal Meningitis? Yes
What is the etiology of Glasser's Disease Haemophilus parasuis (Common inhabitant of pig nasal passage)
What is the pathogensis of Glasser's Disease? Localizes in serous-lined cavities and meninges Causes vascular damage (inflammatory exudate)
What are the clinical signs of Glasser's disease? acute onset of lameness CNS signs (ataxia, tremors recumbency) high fever cyanosis and edema
How do you diagnose for Glasser's Disease? Post-morteum -Polyserositis Culture and sensitivity
What is the treatment of Glasser's Disease? IM antibiotics (penicillin)
What is a method to control Glasser's Disease? Vaccine
What si the etiology of Mycoplasma hyorhinis? Bacteria commonly found in nose and upper respiratory tract of young pigs
What are the clinical signs of Mycoplasma hyorhinis? sudden onset fever Reluctance to move Swollen joints
How do you diagnose Mycoplasma hyorhinis? post-mortem -Rule out other infections
How do you treat/control Mycoplasma hyorhinis? Individual pig treatment Prophylactic in-feed medication if a recurring problem
What is the etiology of Porcine Circovirus Associated Disease (PCVAD)? Porcine Circovirus Type 2 (PCV2)
What is the pathogenesis of PCVAD? Unknown
Created by: 648957082



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