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Pharm Ch4 .

QuestionAnswer
Cholinergic agents stimulate receptors via_____________ Acetylecholine
Adverse effects of Cholinergics are? Bradycardia, hypotension, lacrimation, heart block, vomiting, diarrhea, increased GI activity, intestinal rupture, and increased bronchial secretions
What are the 2 categories of cholinergics? Direct acting and Indirect acting
Direct acting cholinergics mimic the actions of _______________? Acetylcholine
Indirect acting cholinergics (anticholinerstase work how? by inhibiting the break down of acetylcholine
Bethanecol (Urecholine)-tx GI and urinary tract atony Class: Autonomic Nervous System Drugs Category: Direct acting cholinergics
Pilocarpine Isopto Carpine, Akarpine, Pilocar)-decreases intraocular pressure Class: Autonomic Nervous System Drugs Category: Direct acting cholinergics
Metoclopramide (Reglan)-control vomiting, promote gastric emptying Class: Autonomic Nervous System Drugs Category: Direct acting cholinergics
Organophosphate compounds insecticide dips; can cause toxicity if used inappropriatly Class: Autonomic Nervous System Drugs Category: Indirect acting cholinergics
How do anticholinergics work? By blocking the action of acetylcholine at the muscarinic receptors
What are adverse effects of anticholinergics? Drowsiness Disorientation Tachycardia Photophobia Constipation Anxiety Burning at injection site
Atropine Numerous generic or trade names Class: Autonomic Nervous System Drug Category: Anticholinergic
Glycopyrrolate Robinul-V Class: Autonomic Nervous System Drug Category: Anticholinergic
What anticholinergic is the antidote to organophosphate toxicity and will dilate eyes to check for glaucoma? Atropine
What is the difference between Atropine and Glycopyrrolate? Atropine will reverse bradycardia and Glycopyrrolate will only prevent bradycardia
Adrenergic agents bring on actions by working with __________ and ____________. Epinephrine and norepinephrine
What are the 2 classifications of adrenergic agents? Catecholamines and noncatecholamines
Epinephrine (Adrenalin) *#1 drug for crash cart* bc it stimulates all receptors! Like a super huge dose of caffeine!! Category: Adrenergic agents Class: Autonomic Nervous System Drugs
Dopamine Intropin; Tx shock and CHF and increase renal perfusion Category; Adrenergic agents Class: Autonomic Nervous System Drugs
Phenylpropanolamine (Ornade, Prolamine, Dexatrim) Tx urinary incontinence in dog Category: Adrenergic agents Class: Autonomic Nervous System Drugs
Dobutamine Dobutrex) Beta-1 agonist, short term tx of heart failure Category: Adrenergic Agent Class: ANS drugs
Adrenergic blocking agents work by disrupting activity of the __________ nervous system Sympathetic
What are the 3 categories of adrenergic blocking agents? alpha, beta, ganglionic
Phenoxybenzamine (Dibenzyline)-vasodilator Category: Adrenergic blocking agent Class: ANS drugs
Acepromazine tranquilizer and vasodilator Category: Adrenergic blocking agent Class: ANS drugs
Yohimbine (Yobine)-antidote for Xylazine toxicity Category: Adrenergic blocking agent Class: ANS drugs
Atipamezole (Antisedan)-reversal for medetomidine—we have this here! Category: Adrenergic blocking agent Class: ANS drugs
Adrenergic blocking agents-beta blockers are used to tx what? tx glaucoma, arrhythmias, hypertrophic cardiomyopathies
Acepromazine--bright yellow!! Class: CNS drugs Category: Tranquilizers--Phenothiazine Derivatives Clinical uses: prevention/tx of vomiting, relief of mild pruritis, sedation/tranquilization; sudden painful stimli will rouse a pt
Diazepam Valium Class: CNS drugs Category: Tranquilizers--Phenodiazapine Derivatives Clinical effects: sedation, muscle relaxation, appetite stimulation (esp in cats), relief of anxiety and behavioral disorders, and anticonvulsant
Xylazine Class: CNS drugs Category: Tranquilizer and Alpha-2 agonist Sedative, analgesic, and muscle relaxant Makes cats vomit! Reversed by Yohimbine
Medetomidine Class: CNS drugs Category: Tranquilizer and Alpha 2 adrenergic agonist Reversed with Antisedan Adverse effects: Bradycardia Decreased respirations Hypothermia Urination Vomiting Hyperglycemia Pain at injection site
What types of animals should you not use barbiturates in? poor liver function, low body fat, or preexisting condition that may cause acidosis SIGHTHOUNDS!!!
Dissociative agents may cause _______ in cats? Hallucinations
Ketamine Ketaset, Ketalar; Class: CNS drugs Category: Dissociative agents will cause catelepsy (stiffness of the limbs)
Morphine sulfate Durmorph Class: CNS drugs Category: Opiod Agonists-Naturally occuring Tx severe pain
Butorphanol Torbugesic Class: CNS drug Category: Opiod Agonists-Synthetic 4-7 times stronger than Morphine Antitussive/analgesic
Fentanyl Sublizmaze Class: CNS drugs Category: Opiod Agonists-Synthetic 100 times stronger then Morphine Transdermal patches
Apomorphine Class: CNS drugs Category: Opioid agonist-Synthetic Emetic-can go IV or in the eye, dogs only
Buprenorphine Buprenex Class: CNS drugs Category: Opioid agonists-Synthetic Great post op analgesia for cats
Naloxone Opioid Antagonists Bind with receptors to displace opioids and stop their binding
What are neurolepanalgesics made up of? Tranquilizer and opioid
What are adverse effects of neurolepanalgesics? Adverse Effects: panting, flatuence, personality changes, increased sound sensitivity, bradycardia, and OD=severe depression of CNS
Phenobarbital Used to prevent seizures, daily meds Only med still measured in grains
What is the name of the only white substance that can go IV? Propofol
Propofol Short acting hypnotic Used for induction of sx patients AKA Milk of amnesia
Diazepam, Lorazepam, Alprazolam Valium, Atian, Xanax Class: Behavioral Drugs Category: Benzodiazepines-Antianxiety Clinical uses: tx of fears/phobias, separation anxiety, aggression, anxiety-induced stereotypes, urine marking in cats, and appetite stimuation
Amitriptyline, Clomipramine Elavil, Clomicalm Class: Behavioral drugs Category: Tricyclic antidepressant Clinical uses: separation anxiety, obsessive disorders, fearful aggression, hyperactivity, hypervocalization, and urine marking
Fluoxetine Reconcile Class: Behavioral Category: Serotinin reuptake inhibitors-antidepressant Clinical use: obsessive disorders, phobias, aggression, and separation anxiety
Selegiline Anipryl Class: Behavioral Category: Monomine oxidase B inhibitors Clinical uses: tx of Doggie Dementia and Cushing’s
Created by: lsondermann