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vt pharmacology

midterm review

the study of how a drug moves through the body pharmacokinetics
the treatment of disease through the administration of drugs pharmacotherapy
the study of drugs pharmacology
The branch of chemistry that is concerned with the rates of change in the concentration of reactants in a chemical reaction kinetics
use of a drug in a way or for a purpose not specified on the label, or more practically the documents provided by the manufacturer extra-label drugs
A therapeutic agent that does not require a prescription, which the FDA feels can be safely self-prescribed by non-physicians over the counter drugs
any drug regulated under the Controlled Substances Act controlled substances
the ability or tendency to produce cancer carcinogenicity
An agent, such as a virus, a drug, or radiation, that causes malformation of an embryo or fetus. teratogenicity
dose that kills 50% of the animals receiving it lethal dose LD50
a dose can only be called effective if it causes a desired effect in 50% of the animals that recieve it effect dose ED50
the margin of safety of a medication therapeutic index
test of a drugs effect on a particular physiological system system oriented screen
a length of time necessary for the drug to leave body tissues and/or bodily fluids withdrawal time
Acting on the body with the same strength and similar bioavailability as the same dosage of a sample of a given substance. bioequivalency
a precise description of the substance based on its chemical structure chemical name
official identifying name of the drug generic(nonproperietary) name
establishes legal proprietary recognition for the corporation that developed the drug brand name
date before which a drug meets all specifications and after which the drug should no longer be used expiration date
these medications are ordered to a pharmacist, written by a licensed doctor prescription
To deal out in parts or portions; distribute dispensing
movement of particles from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration that doesn't require energy passive diffusion
passive diffusion that uses a special carrier molecule facilitated diffusion
molecules move against the concentration gradient from areas of low concentration to areas of high concentration that uses a carrier molecule and requires energy active transport
molecules are physically engulfed by the cell phagocytosis
movement of drug from the site of administration into the fluids of the body that will carry it to its sites of action drug absorption
percent of drug administered that actually enters the systemic circulation bioavailability
when drugs change body compartments they may become ionized and trapped in the new environment ion trapping
the removal of a drug from the body(excretion) drug elimination
The time required for half the quantity of a drug or other substance deposited in a living organism to be metabolized or eliminated by normal biological processes half-life
when there is a process with numerous properties that are unchanging in time. steady state
specialized proteins located on the cell membrane, in the cytoplasm, or within the nucleus of cells receptors
the strength of binding between a drug and its receptor affinity
drug that binds to a cell receptor and causes a positive action agonist
drug that inhibits or blocks the response of a cell when the drug is bound to the receptors antagonist
substances that are 100% pure pure drug
concentrated solution from which more dilute solutions are made stock solution
substance in which another substance is dissolved solvent
inert substance used for dilution diluent
drops of IV fluids per unit of time drip rate
an older system of measurement based on grains or drams apothecary system
adding a solvent to a concentrated drug to make a solution reconstitution
amount of drug per body weight dosage
how frequently the dosage is given dosage interval
dosage and the dosage interval together dosage regimen
amount of drug administered to the patient dose
initial dose given to get the drug concentration up to the therapeutic range in a very short period of time loading dose
dose that keeps the drug in the therapeutic range maintenance dose
total amount of drug delivered in a 24 hour period total daily dose
subQ or SQ subcutaneous
ID intradermal
IV intravenous
IO intraosseous
IT intrathecal
IM intramuscular
IP intraperitoneal
PO per os/ by mouth
TD transdermal
Of, relating to, or being within the intestine. enteral
by means other than through the digestive tract parenteral
To administer too large a dose or too many doses to relative overdose
CRI a constant rate infusion of any drug/medication
the point at which nerves and muscles interface and neurotransmitters work neuromuscular junction
amount of blood pumped out of the heart in one minute, stroke volume x rate cardiac output
amount of blood pumped out of the left ventricle at the end of the cardiac cycle stroke volume
fore of contractions contractility
irregular heart beat arrhythemia
volume of blood entering the right side of the heart before contraction preload
receptors on internal organs that mediate the response of the sympathetic nervous system adrenergic receptor
heart rate faster than normal tachycardia
heart rate slower than normal bradycardia
blood clot found in blood vessels formed primarily of platelets thromboembolism
hormone produced by the kidneys that stimulates the bone marrow to produce red blood cells eythropoietin
the heart muscle myocardium
blood remaining in the chamber during diastole cardiac afterload
disease of the heart muscle cardiomyopathy
fluid accumulation in the abdomen ascities
enlargement of the liver hepatomegaly
fluid accumulation within the lungs pulmonary edema
fainting; a sudden/brief lack of cardiac output resulting in lack of oxygen to the brain producing unconsciousness syncope
enlargement of the heart cardiomegaly
cells lining the inside of blood vessels endothelium
occuring without symptoms asymptomatic
loss of blood supply ischemia
low blood calcium levels hypokalemia
the neurotransmitters epinephrine, norepinepherine, and dopamine catecholamines
effectiveness/strength of cardiac muscle contraction contractility
difficulty breathing dyspnea
increase in cell size hypertrophy
free blood within the eye, specifically the anterior chamber hyphema
an enzyme used to convert phospholipids into arachidonic acid phospholipase
an enzyme used to convert arachidonic acid into prostaglandins cyclooxygenase
chemicals in the body that stimulate the immune response, protect the lining of the stomach, and stimulate platelet aggregation prostaglandins
chemicals in the body that stimulate the immune response leukotrines
itching puritis
component of extra cellular matrix of cartilage glycosaminoglycans
sensation of pain resulting from a normally non painful stimulus allodynia
exaggerated response to painful stimuli hyperalgesia
pain initiated or caused by a primary lesion or dysfunction in the nervous system neuropathic pain
nerve receptors thought to be involved in pain wind up NMDA receptors
basic functional unit of the nervous system neuron
medication used to treat seizures anticonvulsants
damaging/toxic to the liver hepatotoxicity
reduce the anxiety and aggression, but may cause sedation tranquilizers
decrease the irritability and excitement, may cause sedation sedatives
lessen anxiousness, but don't usually make animals drowsy anti-anxiety drugs
state in which pain is relieved, but consciousness is maintained and anesthesia is not produced analgesia
opioid or opioid-like drug narcotic
combination of opioid and tranquilizer or sedative neuroleptic analgesia
without sensation anesthesia
CNS depressants derived from barbituric acid barbiturates
drug that increases urine production diuretic
pu/pd resulting from lack of production of ADH or lack of response by the kidneys to ADH diabetes insipidus
concentration of ions in a solution osmolality
increased intraocular pressure glaucoma
decreased urine production oliguria
no urine production anuria
voiding of urine micturition
inability to prevent the discharge of a substance incontinence
the FDCA was passed in __ which required that a drug be adequately tested to demonstrate its safety when used as its label directs 1983
prescription drugs are regulated by the ___ and require a valid veterinarian-client-patient-relationship FDA
giving a cat a medication that is only FDA approved for use in a dog is an example of extra label use
controlled substance act of 1970 established 5 categories(schedules) of controlled drugs
drug schedules are based on potential for abuse and accepted medical benefit
these have the highest potential for abuse and no medical benefit schedule I
these have low potential for abuse and accepted medical benefits schedule V
controlled drug logs must be maintained for a minimum of 2 years
what are the three government agencies used to regulate medications FDA, EPA, APHIS
the FDA regulates drugs
the EPA regulates pesticides
the APHIS regulates biological (vaccines)
drugs are available through these 4 ways direct marketing, distributors/wholesalers, generic companies, and pharmacies
the __ __ __ describes the source, appearance properties, standards of purity, and other legal requirements of the most important pure drugs United States Pharmacopoeia (USP)
the ___ requires that all drugs meet USP standards of purity, quality, and uniformity FDA
the generic/trade name, concentration and quantity, name and address of manufacturer, manufacturers control or lot number, expiration date, withdrawal time(if warranted) and controlled substance status must all be on a drug label
a registered name/generic name/controlled substance notation, composition statement, clinical pharmacology,mode of action, indication and usage, contrainindication, precautions, adverse reactions or side effects, OD information must be on a drug package insert
package insert information can also be found in several books such as the PDR, the VPB, the CVP, and plumbs veterinary drug handbook
veterinary staff can dispense medications under a veterinarians direct supervision but can not prescribe them
pharmacokinetics can be divided into these 4 areas absorption, distribution, metabolisim, excretion
the 4 basic mechanisms for moving substances across membranes passive diffusion, facilitated diffusion, active transport, pinocytosis/phagocytosis
drug absorption is affected by solubility, formulation, pH, molecular size of the drug, patient's age and health status
facotrs that affect drug distribution size/membrane permability, tissue perfusion, protein binding, volume of distribution
primary site of drug metabolize is the liver
drug interactions can affect drug metabolism in multiple ways such as altered absorption, competition for plasma proteins, altered excretion, altered metabolism, inducing the enzyme system, liver issues, tolerance
the 4 main routes of drug elimination kidneys, liver, intestines, milk
1 grain is equal to how many mg approximately 63mg
medicine bottles are measured in drams
a percent solution is how many what in 100ml of solution grams
the number of units in total volume is an example of what a ratio
to calculate how to make a dilution sample what formula is used IS X IV= FS X FV
maintenance fluid rate is generally excepted as 60ml/kg/day
drugs given this route generally have a rapid onset of action, higher initial body levels of the drug, and a shorter duration of activity IV
drugs given this route typically have a slower onset of action, longer duration of activity, and a variable absorption rate SQ
the factors that keep drugs in their therapeutic range route of administration, drug dose, dosage interval
drug toxicity can occur because of outright od, relative od, side effects, accidental exposure, interation with other drugs, incorrect treatment
what are the three different types of fluids that can be given crystalloids, colloids, blood products
LRS, normosol, plasmalyte, sodium chloride, and dextrose solutions are examples of what type of fluid crystalloid
this is a good replacement type of fluids fr mild to moderate dehydration, its tonicity is designed to not destroy the cells isotonic
this type of fluid pushes fluid into cells instead of into the extracelular space, should be used for dehydration, should not be used in CHF or liver disease hypotonic
this type of fluid pulls fluid out of the cells and into the extracellular space, used for head trauma hypertonic
human albumin, hetastach, dextran 40 & 70, hemoglobin-based oxygen carriers are all examples of what type of fluid colloid
longer effect in correcting hypovolemia, safe to use w/CHF, decreased chance of peripheral edema, will help maintain blood pressure without need of positive itotropes, decrease amount of crystaloids needed are all what of using colloids? pros
expensive, caution in cases of albumin loss unless using hetastach, hetastach can cause elevated amylase levels, increase coagulation panel values, are a potential for anaphylaxis are all what of using colloids? cons
#1 in circulation of electrical current through the heart, the pacemaker of the heart, located at the top of the right atrium sa node
#2 in circulation of electrical current through the heart, located at the bottom of the right atrium, av node
#3 in circulation of electrical current through the heart bundle of hiss
#4 in circulation of electrical current through the heart purkinje fibers
#5 in circulation of electrical current through the heart route of conduction/ repolarization
this is dependant on the hearts chamber size, force of contraction, blood pressure, and volume of blood avaliable to be pumped stroke volume
to maintain cardiac output, a few mechanisms can be altered such as heart rate/ rhythm, stroke volume
these type of inotropes increase contracitility, and are cardiac glycosides and catecholamines positive
these type of inotropes decrease contractility, decrease workload, and are beta blockers and calcium channel blockers negative
these medications increase the strength of cardiac contractions and decrease heart rate, side effects can be anorexia, vomiting, diarrhea, or cardiac arrhythemias cardiac glycosides
examples of cardiac glycosides are ___, which has a narrow therapeutic window, and ___ which has just recently been released onto the market digoxin, pimobendan
lidocane is an example of what kind of cardiac drug, it is used to treat ventricular arrhythemias but not used in cats sodium channel blocker
atenolol is an example of what kind of drug, it is used to treat tachyarrhythemias and HCM in cats atenolol
these medications increase urine production diuretics
the most commonly used diuretic furosemide(lasix)
this diuretic can cause potassium depletion through the urine spirnolactone
this type of medication decreases water retention and dilated blood vessels, it is used to treat CHF, an example is enalapril ACE inhibitors
these medications are used to prevent/treat blood clots in and out of the patients, examples are heparin, plavix, asprin anticoagulants
these along with erythropoietin are used to treat anemia iron supplements
these occur because of abnormal start to electrical impulses or abnomal condution of those impulses through the heart, lidocane is used for emergency treatment cardiac arrhythemias
this can potentially be managed with lasix and cardiac meds, such as atenolol or digoxin, or anticoagulants may be prescribed to reduce the chances of a thromboembolism hypertrophic cadiomyopathy(HCM)
the treatment of choice for this is amlodipine, hyperthryoidism and hypokalemia may be treated first before initiating amlodipine therapy hypertension
treatment of this may involve killing the adult worms and possibly the microfilaria(dogs only) heartworms
these medications increase the flow of respiratory secretions to allow material to be coughed up from the lungs, increase the fluidity of mucus, ex: guaifenesin expectorants
these decrease the viscosity or thickness of respiratory secreations, ex acetylcysteine mucolytics
this medication is also used to treat onion and acetaminophen toxicity acetylcysteine
antitussives are used to supress a cough in cases that have collapsing trachea, infectious tracheobronchitis
these medications are centrally acting and usally controlled medications, ex: butorphanol antitussives
this antitussive is commonly used in people, it is not effective in other animals dextromethorphan
these medications decrease the congestion of nasal passages by reducing swelling, ex: phenylephrine, pseudoephedrine decongestants
these block the effects of histamine on the body, also have decongestant effects, ex: diphenhydramine, chlorpheniramine, side effects include ens depression, anticholinergic effects such as dry mouth antihistamines
these medications widen the lumen of the bronchi and counteract bronchoconstriction, ex: atropine, epinepherine, albuterol, aminophylline, theophylline bronchodilators
these medications stimulate the animal to increase its respirations, ex: doxapram, naloxone, yohimbine respiratory stimulants
this medication is used to stimulate respirations following c-section, use has become controversial doxapram
this medication is the antidote for narcotic overdose naloxone
this medication is used to reverse xylazine yohimbine
this is part of a normal healing process but can become damaging if severe or chronic inflammation
anti-inflammatories are divided into these two catagories steroidal and nonsteroidals
steroids can be divided into these two catagories glucocorticoids and mineralcorticoids
these treat inflammation by blocking phospholipase, thus preventing production of prostaglandins and leukotrienes, also can elevate blood sugar, involved in metabolism of energy producing nutrients, are regulated by a negative feed back loop glucocorticoids
these meds are catagoriezed by how long they last, can be enterally/parenterally, reduce inflammation, relieve pruritis, reduce tissue damage glucocorticoids
these meds can also cause delayed wound healing, melting of corneal ulcers if used topically with an animal that already has a corneal ulcer, increase risk of infection bc of immunosuppressive effects, tendon/muslce/ligament weakness, GI upset glucocorticoids
these meds can cause iatrogenic cushings disese if abused, or iatrogenic addison's if stopped abruptly glucocorticoids
this is the active metabolite (via the liver) of prednisone that is often used in cats because of their difficulty with liver metabolism prednisolone
this type of steroid injection can be given orally but will last 1-3 weeks when given as an injection triamcenolone(vetalog)
this steroid injection can be given orally but will last 1-3 days when given as an injection dexamethasone
this form of dexamethasone has a faster onset of action and high concentration dex sp
this steriod injection is long acting and last about 1-2 months methylprednisolone actetate(depo medrol)
these meds work by blocking coclooxygenase, have two forms cox-1 and cox-2, NSAIDs
this type of NSAID produced prostaglandins that are protective to the stomach cox-1
this type of NSAID produces prostaglandins that are involved in inflammation cox-2
gi ulcerations, bone marrow suppression, decreased renal profusion are all side effects of NSAID
this NSAID is commonly used orally for osteoarthritis, can also be given as a single injection post-op in cat, but does not work long term carprofen(rimadyl)
this NSAID works more selective by blocking cox-2, but is not technically considered a cox-2 inhibitor etodolac(etogesic)
this NSAID is a cox-2 inhibitor, but still can block cox-1, so can still have the same side effects as other NSAIDs deracoxib(deramaxx) and meloxicam(metacam)
this is a potent NSAID with analgesic and antipyretic properties, primarily used in horses for musculoskeletal pain phenlbutazone
this is a potent NSAID with analgeis, antipyretic effects, it is primarily used in cattle and horses for musculoskeletal pain and colic pain flunixin meglumine(banamine)
this is a potent NSAID primarily use IV in large animals, can be given orally or topically, can penetrate the skin, so can be used as a carier agent for transdermals dimethyl sulfoxide(DMSO)
this is a glycosaminoglycan that may stimulate regrowth of cartilage, cosequin and glyco-flex are examples, aqequan is an injectable glycosaminoglycan neutroceuticals
vomiting, anorexia, wt loss, diarrhea, gi ulceration/perforation, polydipsia, polyuria, UTI, incontinence, renal failure, inappropriate bleeding are all adverse effects of NSAIDs
fears/phobias/, obsessive compulsive disorder, anxiety, aggresion, cognitive dysfunction are all common behavior problems that may benefit from what behavior drugs & behavior modification
many behavior modifiying drugs can cause sedation
acepromazine can decrease the inhibition to bite
this med can boost confidence and therefore can increase confrontations between animals within a household buspirone
this med is commonly used to treat inappropriate elimination, it is also used to treat feline interstitial cystitis amitryptaline
these can be used to treat behavioral problems but can have significant side effects such as bone marrow suppression hormones
what are the types of neurons sensory/motor
what are the parts of the neuron cell body/ axon/dendrite
what are the divisions of the nervous system CNS & PNS
what are the parts of the autonomic nervous system sympathetic and parasympathetic
what are the parts of the somatic nervous system cranial and spinal nerves
this med is most commonly used to prevent seizures, it decreases spead of seizure impulses, tolerance can develop, avaliable as tablets or injectable(give slow) has a long half life, controlled schedule IV, has multiple drug interactions phenobartibal
this med is an adjunct anticonvulsant, crystalline powder that must be compounded, has a long half life potassium bromide
this med is used IV to treat status epilepticus Diazepam
these meds are used as calming agents, for analgesia, or as antisialogues pre-meds
these meds are used as injectable anesthetics or inhalant anesthetics induction agents
these meds are used as inhalant agents: sevo or iso inhalant agents
these meds reduce anxiety and aggression but may cause sedation tranquilizers
these meds decrease irritability and excitement but may cause sedation sedatives
these meds lessen anxiousness, but dont usually cause sedation anti anxiety drugs
this med works best when used in combination with an opiod, has some analgesic effect, can be reversed by atipamezole, is only injectable dexmedetomidine
this med causes muscle ridigidty, can cause apnea when first administered, mild analgesia unless used as a cri, used for restrain, diagnostic procedures, minor surgical procedures, typically used in combination with other drugs, schedule III drug ketamine
this med is a cominiation product also, contains zolazepam, schedule III drug telazol
this med is a potent cardiovascular and respiratory depressant, sight hounds are highly sensitive, schedule III drug, IV only! will cause tissue necrosis if given perivascularly thipental
this med is used for anesthetic induction, is short acting(last only 2-5mins) has no analgesia affect, can cause respiratory depression if given to fast propofol
this inhalant anesthetic is older, has prolonged response to rate adjustment halothane
this inhalant anesthetic has rapid induction of anesthesia and short recoveries, vigilant monitoring is needed bc the animal can change anesthetic planes quickly, irritates the respiratory system isoflurane
this type of inhalant anesthetic is very similar to isoflurane, may have a faster response to rate changes, have fewer cardiovascular side effects than other inhalants sevoflurane
these meds are neurologic sympatholytics yohimbine, atipamezole
these meds block the binding of opiods to their receptors, they are used to treat respiratory and CNS depression from opiod over dose naloxone, naltrexone
this local anesthetic has immediate onset, is short acting only 1-2 hours, is avaliable in injectiable, topical, or transdermal application lidocane
this local anesthetic has a longer onset time than lidocane, longer acting 3-5 hours, is in injectable form ony bupivicaine
these local anesthetic is used for ophthalmic preparations proparacaine, tetracaine
this was the first medication licensed by the FDA for treatment of seperation anxiety of dogs clomicalm
analgesics are typically divided into two catagories narcotics and non-narcotics
these will cause sedation, produce analgesia, and are anti-anxiety drugs, but do not produce anesthesia opiods
this med will cause vomiting in both dogs and cats and is a schedule II drug morphine
these meds are used to decrease edema or effusion(less effective on effusions) and to lower blood pressure, most common side effect is hypokalemia, have the potential to cause dehydration diuretics
diuretics fall into __ catagoris 5
this diuretic is primarily used to treat diabetes insipidus or utter edema, an example is hydrochlorothiazide, can also cause cardiac dysfunction thiadizines
this diuretic of choice is most instances because they are more effective than thiazides, influence reabsorption of fluid at the loop of Henle, furosemide is the most commonly used, most common side effect is hypokalemia loop diuretics
these meds are used when diuretics are needed but you have concurrent hypokalemia that doesn't resolve with potassium supplementation, spironolactone is most common example, side effect can be hyperkalemia potassium sparing
these meds are used to treat glaucoma, acetazolamide is one example carbonic anhydrase inhibitors
these meds decrease intracranial pressure, prevent kidney failure in causes of oliguria or anuria, treat glaucome, can cause vomiting, mannitol is most common example osmotic diuretics
these are the most commonly seen uroliths struvite, calcium oxalate
these uroliths are primarily seen in dalmations urates
these uroliths can be dissolved using urinary acidifiers struvites
this can be cause by neurologic or non-neurologic disorders, trauma to the spinal cord, tumor of the nervous systrem, nerve degeneration, hormone-responsive, stress, sudden urge, extopic ureters, bladder overdistention urinary incontinence
this occurs because of urine overflow incontinence
treatment of this is aimed at increasing the ability to urinate incontinence
neurological disorders can be treated with alpha-adrenergic antagonists to decrease tone of the internal urethral sphincter such as these meds phenoxybenzamine, parasympathomimetics, bethanechol, anticholinergics, propatheline
non-neurological disorders can be treated with skeletal muscle relaxants, they relax the external urethral sphincter, they are anti-spasmotics such as these meds dantrolene, aminopropazine, diazepam
adrenergic agonisis medications that are used to increase urethral tone such as these medications, most commonly prescribed treatment for hormonal incontinence phenylopropanolamine(PPA)
these can cause significant side effects such as bone marrow suppression, possible carcinogens, Diethylsilbesterol is used in female, testosterone is used in males hormones
Created by: chop



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