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misc. questions

Three classes of hormones steroids, proteins( peptides or goycoproteins), and amines
Steroid hormone synthesis is regulated through negative feedback by another hormone (e.g., cortisol/ACTH)
Protein hormone synthesis is regulated through change in analyte concentration in serum (e.g., insulin/glucose) and negative feedback by another hormone (e.g., testosterone/FSH)
Amine hormone synthesis is regulated by nerve stimulation, antoher hormone(e.g., thyroxine/TSH), and negataive feedback
Examples of clinically significant steroid hormones cortisol, aldosterone, testosterone, estrogen, progesterone
Examples of clinically significant protein hormones FSH, LH, TSH, hCG, insulin, glucagon, parathyroid hormone, growth hormone, and prolactin
Examples of clinically significant amine hormones epinephrine,norepinephrine, thyroxine and triiodothyronine
Commonly used methods for quantifying hormones include electrochemiluminescent immunoassay (Electro CLIA), high performance liquid chromatrography (HPLC) enzyme-multiplied immunoassay technique (EMIT),fluorescent immunoassay (FIA),fluorescent polarization immunoassay (FPIA), and chemiluminescent immunoassay (CLIA)
Hormones produced by the hypothalamus corticotropin-releasing hormone CRH, Gonadotropin-releasing hormone GnRH, Growth hormone-releasing hormone GHGRH, Thyrotropin-releasing hormone TRH, Dopamine,and Somatostain
a hormone that inhibits prolactin release Dopamine
a hormone that inhibits secretion of TSH and GH Somatostatin
a hormone produce by hypothalamus that stimulates secretion of adrenocoticotropic hormone (ACTH) Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH)
a hormone produce by the hypothalamus that stimulates secretion of FSH and LH Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH)
also known as vasopressin antidiuretic hormone
ACTH and cortisol exhibit diurnal variation, with highest levels in what time? highest level in the morning and lowest level in the late afternoon to early evening
Growth hormone is also known as somatotropin hormone
criteria for diagnosis of DM, 1. symptoms of diabetes plus random plasma glucose of = or > 200 mg/dl (11.1mmol/L), 2. FPG of = or > 126 mg/dl (7.0 mmol/L) and 3. 2 Hour post load glucose + or > 200 mg/dL (11.1 mm0l/L) during a n OGTT, using a glucose load of 75 g anydrous glucose dissolved in water.
is the reference method for glucose test hexokinase method. Other tests include glucose oxidase method and glucose dehydrogenase method
The increase in absorbance of NADPH at 340 nm is measured as directly proportional to glucose in what method? hexokinase method. this involves 2 coupled reactions
this method is specific for beta D-glucose glucose oxidase method.( glucose+ O2---->gluconic acid + H2O2 ) with glucose oxidase as the enzyme catalyst.
Glucose + ATP----> G6PO4 + ADP with what enzyme as catalyst hexokinase, with coenzyme Mg2+
Proinsulin is cleaved into the active hormone, insulin, and an inactive peptide called C-peptide. this peptide reflects the production of endogenous insulin
the presence of autoantibodies to pancreatic islet markers confirms a diagnosis of what type of diabetes type 1 diabetes. Islet cell cytoplasmic autoantibodies are seen at the onset of 70% to 80% of type 1 diabetes cases.
Glutamic acid decarboxylase autoantibodies are also found at the onset of 70% to 80% of what type of diabetes cases, and insulinoma- 2–associated autoantibodies are found with about 60% of such cases type 1 diabetes
In both diabetic and nondiabetic critically ill patients, hyperlycemia is associated with impaired immunity that results in increaseed susceptibility to infection.
is associated with pathological changes in both diabetic and nondiabetic patients, such as impaired immunity, blindness, renal disease, and neuropathy Hyperglycemia
is associated with cardiovasculardisorders, stroke, and limb amputation Hyperglycemia of diabetes
Glycated hemoglobin normal value is 4%-6%. also called glycosylated hemoglobin or HbA1c
are by-products of excessive beta-oxidation of fatty acids KETONES.They are beta-hydroxybutyric acid(is present in large amount 78%), acetoacetate 20% and acetone 2% are products of this process.
is defined as blood pressure greater than or equal to 140/90 mm Hg Hypertension
is a term that is used to describe albumin in urine in amounts that are slightly above normal MICROALBUMINURIA, is sometimes described as "dipstick-negative albuminuria" since urine dipsticks are not sensitive to these small amounts.
Sodium nitroprusside test and B-Hydroxybutyrate Dehydrogenase method are test methodology for Ketones
is a common occurence in the ketoacidosis of diabetes Dehydration
Created by: troy1016