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Equine Nutrition, CP

Cal Poly Equine Nutrition, ASCI 346

QuestionAnswer
Three forms: Zebrines Caballines Hermiones (Kiang)
Description of Zebrines molars: V shaped linguaflexid molars
Description of Caballines molars: deep u-shaped linguaflexid molars
Description of Hermiones molars: shallow v- or u-shaped linguaflexid
What period did the earliest horse appear? Eocene
What period did an influx of grass occur? Miocene
What two prehistoric horses appeared in the miocene epoch? Merychippus Pliohippus
What period did the equus become extinct in NA? Pliocene
What were the four different populations that were domesticated? Coldblood Warmblood Tarban Afro-turkic
Evidence that the horse is a continual grazer: limited stomach capacity limited stomach retention time no gallbladder
Time that horses graze on average (for those calculation questions...) 17 hrs
4 parts of the GIT Headgut Foregut Midgut Hindgut
QUICK! What's included in the Headgut? Lips Tongue Dentition
QUICK! What's included in the Foregut? Esophagus Stomach
QUICK! What's included in the Midgut? Small Intestine Pancreas Bilary System
And finally... What's included n the Hindgut? Cecum Large Intestine Rectum
87% of dental disorders occur with the _______ and ______. Premolars Molars
Dental formula: deciduous teeth DI: 3/3 DC: 0/0 DP: 3/3 NO MOLARS
Permanent Male Teeth Dental Formula I: 3/3 C: 1/1 P: 3-4/3 M: 3/3
Permanent Female Teeth Dental Formula I: 3/3 C: (1/1) P: 3/4 M: 3/3
The permanent adult teeth of a horse are: moliform and hypsodont.
The mandibular displacement of a horse is greater or shorter when consuming long stem forages as opposed to pelleted feed. GREATER
The length of the esophagus is: 120-150 cm (or the height of Amy...sans boots)
The type of cells in the esophagus are.... stratified squamos non-glandular epithelia
Retention time of the stomach 2-6 hrs
The Saccus Ceacus includes ______: microbial fermentation
What is the Margo Plicatus? The seam between the non-glandular and glandular epithelium
What portion of the stomach is non-glandular? Glandular? Non: Saccus Ceacus Glandular: Fundic Region
What portion of the GIT is important for the breakdown & absorption of CHO, amino acids, and lipids? Midgut
The first portion of the Duodenum has a pH of ____ and the later portion has a pH of ______. 2.5-3.5 7.0-7.5
The Jejunum and Ileum both are attached to messentary and have a pH of ____. 7.8-8.2
What is the point of the neutral(ish) pH of the jujunum and ileum? Perfect for: -enzymatic activity -active transport of nutrients
The ileum is a major site of _____, ____ _____, and _____ absorption and digestion. protein, amino acid, mineral absorption
The Hindgut is responsible for absorbing.... VFAs and water
The type of enzymatic activity in the Hindgut is.... alloenzymatic/ DON'T FORGET IT!
The cecum has how may teniae and how many haustra: Tenia: 4 Haustra: 4
What is absorbed in the cecum? VFA's
How many teniae in: Right Ventral Colon: Left Ventral Colon: Left Dorsal Colon: Right Dorsal Colon: Pelvic Flexure: Decending Colon: Right Ventral Colon: 4 Left Ventral Colon: 4 Left Dorsal Colon: 1 Right Dorsal Colon: 3 Pelvic Flexure: 1 Decending Colon: 2
What is the point of flexures and sacculations? To create compartments
Total GIT retention times 33.8 h liquid 42.7 h particulates
Plant palatability influences: Availability Physical Characteristics Location Maturity Quality Grass vs legumes (aka...species)
Factors that affect grazing times: gender of animal physiological demand breed herd/gregarious behaviors
It takes longer to consume ___ than ____. Hay than grain
VDMI means ____ and is about ____% of the horses BW. Voluntary dry matter intake 2%
Digestibility = ______________ - ________________ / ___________ Digestibility = consumed - excreted / consumed x 100
Gross energy is also know as: total potential energy
Digestible energy = Gross energy - fecal energy loss
Metabolizable Energy = Digestible energy - gas production - urine loss
Net Energy = Metabolizable energy - heat increment
Maintenance means: no work no growth no milk (lactation) no foal (gestation)
3 levels of maintenance and their requirements -Minimum (30.3 kcal ED/kg BW) -Average (33 kcal DE/kg BW) -Elevated (36.3 kcal DE/kg BW)
Thermonuetral zone in a horse: 5-25 degrees C
Carbohydrates are found in: forages and grain
Different way to categorize CHOs: -Simple or complex -Size and Structure (degrees of polymerization) -Structural or non-structural
3 examples of oligosaccharides: -Fructans -Stackalose -Raffinose
4 examples of polysacharrides: -Cellulose -Starch -Amylose (non-structural) -Hemicellulose (structural)
Monosacharides use ______ linkages and cellulose uses _____ linkages. alpha 1,4 Beta 1,4 linkages
3 volatile FAs produced from fermentation: -acetic acid -propionic acid -buteric acid
Other resistant CHOSs: -pectins -B-glucans -raffinose -stachylose
Cellulolytic: ____ acetic acid _____ propionic acid increases; decreases
Amylolytic: ____ acetic acid _____ lactic acid decreases; increases
On 100% forage diet, ____% of energy is met from VFA's 80%
What vitamin is produced from fermentation? Vitamin K (and all the B-complex vitamins!)
Maltose is a ____saccharide. Disaccharide.
Acetate is used directly by energy in the horse, but it if it stored, it is stored as..... long chain fatty acids.
Propionate is stored in... the liver.
Propionate in the liver is then used for ________ gluconeogenesis.
Crude fiber is... the partial measurement of structural CHO.
We measure non-structural carbohydrates by using... Nitrogen Free Extract
NDSC = NFC = ______________ non-structural CHO.
As lignin goes up, digestibility goes ______. down. Lignin is indigestible to auto and alloenzymatic activity.
ADF helps measure: lignin and cellulose.
Two types of fermentation: rapid (CHO Fr) slowly (CHO Fs)
Resistant starches cannot be broken down by ____autoenzymatic fermentation. auto
What are some purposes of fiber? They hold water, increase weight of GIT (which works GIT muscles), is involved with gut health
Insufficient fiber can lead to acidosis colic gastric ulcers increased risk of cribbing and wood chewing
How much forage should be fed by body weight on a DMB? 1%
Order of the hindgut. C: cecum RVC: right ventral colon SF: sternal flexure LVC: Left ventral colon PF: pelvic flexure LDC: left dorsal colon DF: diaphragmatic flexure RDC: right dorsal colon TC: transverse colon SC: small colon R: rectum
The number of teniae in each section of the hindgut: 4 --- C 4 --- RVC 4 --- SF 4 --- LVC 1 --- PF 1 --- LDC 3 --- DF 3 --- RDC 2 --- TC 2 --- SC 0 --- R
The three type of hydrolizable CHOs Organic Acids Sugars - mono/disacharrides Starch
Hydrolizable CHOs are susceptible to ____enzymatic activity. auto
The Rapidly Fermentable CHOs: -Oligosacharrides (including fructooligosaccharides) -fructan polysaccharides -B-glucans -Pectin and Gums
The Slowly Fermentable CHOs: hemicellulose cellulose lignin
These can be measured by NFC/NDSC Organic Acids Sugars - mono/disacharrides Starch -Oligosacharrides (including fructooligosaccharides) -fructan polysaccharides -B-glucans -Pectin and Gums (aka...all the CHO-H and CHO-Fr)
These can be measured by NDF: hemicellulose cellullose lignin
This is measured by NDF but NOT by ADF hemicellulose
CHO - H are absorbed in the... SI
CHO -Fs and Fr are absorbed in the... LI
We want to avoid a diet of over __% starch.... 30
An excess of starch will give you (have fun with these....) -Increased Amylolytic bacteria -Increased Cellulolytic bacteria -Increased anaerobes -decreased acetate -increased propionate -increased lactic acid -decreased PH -increased risk of: colic, lactic acidosis, laminitis
Created by: ahypnaro