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vet 1305

changes to cell structure that can indicate the presence/absence of disease blood cell morphology
to do a manual cbc differential you make a blood smear
to prepare a blood smear you need a blood sample from a _______ and _________ EDTA tube; microscope slides
using a ________ you place a small drop of blood in the _______ of the slide to make a blood smear capillary tube; middle end
the spreader slide is held at a ____-____ degree angle to back into the blood drop to prepare a blood smear 30-45
only pressure applied to the spreader slide should be from _______ _____ _____ ______ weight of slide itself
a blood smear should take up ____-_____ of the slide 2/3-3/4
side of a blood smear should be parallel and _____ or _____ shaped bullet;flame
when staining a blood smear the slide should spend ____-____ seconds in each stain 20-30
a good quality blood smear has ____ layers 3
the thickest area of a blood smear that cannot be evaluated because the cells are stacked on top of each other body
the diagnostic area of a blood smear that is thinner, contains cells in a single layer, and is used to view cell morphology monolayer
the part of a blood smear where heavier cells are seen along with platelet clumps and any parasites feathered edge
these are highly reflective bubbles in the cytoplasm seen on a blood smear refractile
refractile is caused by _______ in the alcohol fixative contamination
refractile may be mistaken for a ________ parasitic infection
_______ _______ can be viewed as purple aggregate(small crystals), may be mistaken for platelet clumps, and is usually found on a different focal plane stain precipitate
knowledge of proper sampling techniques, handling, in-house analyzers, sample requirements, routine maintenance procedures, and basic quality control are all roles of the technician
this is designated solely for use with blood films and cytology preparations and should be a high-quality binocular microscope with a planachromatic lense and focusable substage condenser Microscope #1
this is designated solely for use for parasitology, fecals, and urine examinations. Corrosive fluids are used to evaluate these specimens and can cause damage Microscope #2
this is used to determine plasma protein concentrations by the refractive index of the plasma and also determination of USG refractometer
the refractometer surface should always be cleaned off with ________ and a ______ distilled water;kimwipe
this is a series of staps and procedures to ensure that the analytic results from a lab represent the state of the animal from the sample taken quality control
incorrect lab test results can lead to.. incorrect diagnosis
veterinary lab tests have been modified from human lab test
what is the biggest concern when performing lab tests human error
this refers to how closely the lab test result is to the actual patients value accuracy
this refers to the reproductibility of a lab test precision
as a technician we are train to generate test results true
______ and _____ can cause splenic contraction which can affect several lab test results excitement;stress
venous blood can be obtained from these 3 veins in a cat jugular, cephalic, femoral vein
venous blood can be obtained from these 3 veins in a dog jugular, cephalic, lateral saphenous
this is the prefered site to obtain venous blood from in large domestics jugular
venous blood can be obtained from these 3 veins in a horse jugular, facial, tail vein
venous blood can be obtained from these 2 veins in a cow jugular, tail vein
this is the prefered site to obtain venous blood from birds wing vein
venous blood can be obtained from these 2 areas in laboratory animals if they are anesthestized intraorbital sinus, and cardiac puncture
this is the prefered site to obtain venous blood in laboratory animals that are not anesthetized tail vein
these are the 2 methods used to obtain blood from rabbits ear vein or toenail clip
collecting and handling blood samples, performing a cbc, assisting with bone marrow examination, helping with routine blood coagulation tests hematologic procedures
the study of blood hematology
20g-25g needles should be used for blood draws in ______ small animals
16g-20g needles should be used for blood draws in ______ large animals
when drawling blood collapsing the vein by creating excessive back pressure can cause tissue damage and increase platelet activation
platelets aggregate and lyse after____ hours of storage 6
composed of cellular elements and plasma whole blood
fluid portion of blood that contains clotting factors plasma
fluid portion of blood that does not contain clotting factors serum
this should be kept refrigerated and processed within 8 hours of obtaining the sample serum
this should be kept refrigerated or frozen and processed within 6 hours of obtaining the sample plasma
this may be kept refrigerated but the sample must be warmed and remixed before analysis and must be processed within 6 hours of obtaining the sample whole blood
this is used in blood collection tubes when whole blood or plasma samples are needed anticoagulants
this anticoagulant functions to bind with calcium in the blood to prevent clotting EDTA
EDTA samples must be evaluated within 2 hours of sample collection or morphologic changes in cells may occur 2
after ____ hours WBC's begin to break down and disintegrate in EDTA 6
after ____ hours platelets begin to swell and clump in EDTA 4
this anticoagulant functions by activation of antithrombin III which prevents conversion of prothrombin to thrombin Heparin
using heparin anticoagulant in blood tubes is________ not permanent
using heparin anticoagulant in blood tubes inhibits coagulation for ___-____ hours 8-12
sodium citrate anticoagulant can cause distortion of cell morphology and is used for coagulation tests ___ & ____ PT;PTT
ration of blood to anticoagulant is crucial in this blood tube BTT
red top tube should contain the sample for a minimum of _____ mins prior to centrifugation to assure clot formation 60
the red and black tiger top tube should contain the sample for a minimum of _____ mins prior to centrifugation 30
the tiger top red and black tube contains clot activatior and agar gel
the tiger top yellow and gray tube contains thrombin clot activator and agar gel
the yellow and gray tiger top should contain a blood sample for a minimum of ___ mins prior to centrifugation 5
blue ring hematocrit tubes contain no anticoagulant
red ring hematocrit tubes contain heparin
formation of blood cells hematopoiesis
in adult animals hematopoiesis occurs in bone marrow
in prenatal animals hematopoiesis occurs in multiple organ sites such as the liver and spleen
formation of erythrocytes erythropoiesis
an increase in the number of circulating erythrocytes polycythemia
a decrease in the oxygen carrying ability of the blood anemia
protein the comprises approximately 33% of the volume of an erythrocyte hemoglobin
formation of white blood cells leukopoiesis
neutrophils, eosinophils, and basophils are all considered to be granulocytes
lumphocytes and monocytes are all considered to be agranulocytes
an increase in the numbers of circulating leukocytes leukocytosis
a decrease in the number of circulating leukocytes leukopenia
one what power should you examine erythrocytes and on what part of a blood smear 100X(oil immersion), in the monolayer where approximately 50% of the RBC's are touching
what is polycythemia increase in the number of erythrocytes
a variation in the size of RBC's that is commonly in bovine blood, seen in spleenic disorders, liver disorders, and is a sign of regenerative anemia is what cell morphology anisocytosis
an increase of larger than normal RBC's that usually appear as reticulocytes when stained with NMB is what cell morphogoly macrocytosis
an increase of RBC's smaller in diameter than normal, seen in animals with iron defeciency is what cell morphology microcytosis
polychromatophils appear as what type of cell when stained with NMB reticulocytes
hyperchromic cells appear __ than normal erythrocytes, and are usually known as what other type of cell morphology darker; spherocytes
what is the generic name for an abnormally shaped erythrocyte poikilocytes
what is the most common cause of crenation? old blood, edta tube not properly filled, slow drying of blood smear
waht is the other name for a crenated cell burr cell
true pathological crenation may be seen in what patients horses after exercising, dogs with renal disease or lymphosarcoma
the presence of targer cells is ususally due to what liver disease or iron deficiency
spurr cells are also known as acanthocytes
spherocytes may indicate IMHA
schistocytes are caused by vascular trauma or mechanical damage
the stacks of rbc's is called rouleaux
the clumping of rbc's is called agglutination
basophilic stippling is characterized by what bluish granular bodies on the surface of the rbc's
what does basophilic stippling diagnose in small animals lead poisiong
howell-jolly bodies are commonly seen in what species felines
when would howell-jolly bodies been seen in the feline patient if regenerative anemia is present
heinz bodies may be cause by what toxins onion, tylenol, and red maple leaves in horses
FIA or hemobartonellosis is also known as what blood parasite in the feline mycoplasm haemofelis
how is cytauxzoon felis transmitted by ticks
dirofilaria immitis is also know as what <3 worm disease in dogs : (
what are the two catagories for wbc's granulocytes, agranulocytes
neutrophils, eosinophils, and basophils are all what type of wbc's granulocytes
lymphocytes and monocytes are what type of wbc agranulocytes
in a neutrophil if the constriction is greater than one third of the width of the nucleus it is considered segmented
these types of neutrophil have a horseshoe or s shaped nucleus with no constriction bands
when the number of band neutrophils is increased the condition is called a left shift
a left shift is generally due to a/an inflammatory reaction
cytoplasmic vacuolation can be seen in what types of leukocytes toxic neutrophils, toxic lymphocytes
cytoplasmic vacuolation is associate with infmallation, infection, drug toxicity, septicemia
an increase in the total number of neutrophils neutropenia
what is the functional equivalent of the neutrophil in rabbits, birds, and reptiles heterophils
monocytes are derived from what bone marrow
monocytes become what type of cell macrophages
what is the purpose of monocytes to phagocytize large particles and cellular debris that neutrophils cant handle
eosinophils help control what type of reactions allergic or anaphylactic hyper sensitivity reactions
these eosinophils contain tiny numerous red/orange/pink rod shaped granuels cat
these eosinophils contain less numerous, round, orange/pink/red granuels that are very large in size cattle/dog
these eosinophils contain very large round, bright orange granuels horses
basophils are most commonly seen in what species horses
these wbc's are packed with granuels that stain dark blue basophils
basophilia may be seen with what disease heartworm disease
lymphocytes are the most commonly seen leukocyte seen in what species cattle
normal cat red blood cell morphology look like what on a blood smear spherocytes
the term for red blood cell formation erythropoiesis
this is a protozoan parasite that is spread by the bite of an infected brown dog tick babesia
another term for anemia is oligocythemia
cats will die within days of developing clinical signs of this tick-transmitted disease cytauxzoon felis
tylenol toxicity in the canine may be represented by this type of cell morphology heinz bodies
in cats which form of reticulocytes should be counted when enumerating reticulocytes aggregate form only
EDTA is the anticoagulant of choic for hematology because it does what to the cells preserves
mycoplasma haemofelis is also known as FIA
another name for nRBC is metarubricyte
microcytes are usually immature, polychromatophils, and will appear as reticulocytes with NMB stain (true/false) false
nRBC can be seen in cases of regenerative anemia (true/false) true
target cells contain a central round portion of hemoglobin inside the area of central pallor and is usually due to liver disease (true/false) true
erythropoiesis is a hormone that regulates red blood cell production (true/false) false
practice and attention= confidence and proficiency (true/false) true
precision referse to how closely the test result is to the actual patient value (true/false) false
schistocytes are the red blood cell commonly associated with DIC (true/false) true
acanthocytres are also known as spurr cells
why is it important to have two separate microscopes in your clinic to prevent cross contamination
you should scan the feathered edge on low power to look for what? platelets
the study of blood hematology
variation in size of RBC's in circulation anisocytosis
increase in central pallor, decrease in cytoplasm hypochromasia
this cell morphology is a bluish tint to the cytoplasm of cells polychromasia
this is the geric name for any abnormall shaped cell poikilocytosis
this cell morphology is a rbc with a slitlike center opening stomatocytes
this cell morphology has a small dense rbc with no area of central pallor spherocytes
this cell morphology are fragments of rbc's schistocytes
this cell morphology is an oxidative injury from iron deficiency, has a padlock apperance blister cell
this cell morphology is a ruptured blister cell with two upright cattle "horn like" projections keratocyte
what are the primary indicators of kidney function BUN & creatinine
what are the secondary indicators of kidney function phosphorous & potassium
what does BUN stand for blood urea nitrogen
what does BUN evaluate? calulates glomerular filtration and function
what is creatinine used to measure the filtration rate of the kidneys
what may cause an animal to be hyperkalemic hypoadrenocorticism, acidosis, late stage renal failure
ALT is replaced by what enzyme in large animals? SDH sorbitol dehydrogenase
horse have a high than normal AST value than other species (true/false) true
SAP is known as what serum alkaline phosphate
when might SAP be elevated in an animal liver disease, young/growing animals, bone injury, certain types of cancer in the k9, with use of glucocorticoids or anticonvulsants
what are the two blood proteins that make up plasma albumin and globulins
what is the end breakdown of hemoglobin bilirubin
pt and ptt are affected by the number of platelets (true/false) false
what blood protein is required for blood to clot fibrinogen
what are potential causes for hyperglycemia diabetes mellitus, stress, cushings disease
what are potential causes of hypoglycemia malabsorption, insulin overdose, severe liver disese, prolong contact of serum/plasma with rbc's
where are amylase and lipase produced pancrease
in what species is amlyase and lipase not valid tests cats
sodium Na+
potassium K+
Chloride Cl-
calcium Ca2+
what cation is the most abundant in extracellular space Na+
what anion is the most abundant in extracellular space Cl-
when may you see hyponatremia in an animal with renal failure, vomiting/diarrhea, excessive fluids have been given, diuretics are being used
chloride concentration is regulated by what the kidneys
why is chloride so important plays important role in water/osmotic pressure and electrolyte balance
what test should be run initially to check thyroid function total t4
what test is useful to diagnose hyperthyroidism free t4
tsh stands for what thyroid stimulating hormone
how can hypothyroidism be diagnosed low t4 and a high TSH
what test is used to determine exocrine pancreatic insufficiency serum TLI
this cell should only be seen in bone marrow; divides to produce two prorubricytes rubriblast
this is equal or sometimes larger than a rubriblast; divides to produce two rubricytes prorubricyte
smaller than prorubricyte; seen if patient is anemic; dark purple nucleus rubricyte
the function of rbc's is what oxygen distribution
normal rbc's in most mammals are anuclear, round, and biconcave
these are immature erythrocytes that contain organells reticulocytes
felines have two forms of reticulocytes aggregate; punctate
wbc's are catagorized as either granulocytes; agranulocytes
neutrophils, eosinophils, and basophils are what type of wbc granulocyte
lymphocytes and monocytes are what type of wbc agranulocyte
what is the most predominant wbc, except in cattle neutrophil
this is an immature neutrophil that is not found in peripheral blood unless severe inflammation or infection presents metamyelocyte; myelocyte
in toxic neutrophils these cytoplasmic characteristics are associted with infection, and or drug toxicity dohle bodies, cytoplasmic vacuolation, toxic granulations
this species can show toxic neutrophils during many kinds of illness, but in other species toxic changes usually imply severe imflammatory disease cats
these are small,pall bluish-gray irregular inclusions in the cytoplasm of neutrophils that usually indicated mild toxemia, common in the feline, may be seen with chronic bacterial infection and some viral disease dohle bodies
this toxic neutrophil change is associated with septicemia and can range from a few vacuoles to many causing the cytoplasm to have a foamy apperance cytoplasmic vacuolation
these appear in toxic neutrophils as numerous large purple granules that range in color from dark purple to red to black, seen mostly in infectious disease toxic granulation
these are very large wbc's with diffuse less dense nuclear chromatin, the nucleus varries in shape, cytoplasm is blue-gray and abundant, can be difficult to differentiate from bands, or large lymphocytes monocytes
this is seen in increased viral in fections and chronic inflammation, or with fungal infections or granulomas monocytosis
this wbc is much less commonly seen than neutrophils, help control anaphylactic hypersensitivity reactions, have a lobulated nucleus and red/orange/pink granuels eosinophil
this wbc usually has equal numbers to monocytes on differential counts eosinophils
this wbc is involved in allergic and parasitic diseases, lrelatively rare to see on blood films, but when present ten to occur in association with increased eosinophils basophils
these wbc's have dark blue granules that generally fill the entire cytoplasm basophils
this is the second highest number of wbc in circulation lymphocytes
this wbc is small to medium sized mono-nuclear with a thing rim of light to dark blue cytoplasm and a round, often eccentric, nucleus lymphocytes
a cbc is a complete blood cell count
the components of a cbc are rbc's, rbc indicies, wbc's, wbc differentials, platelets
rbc indicies include Hct, Hgb, MCV, MCH, MCHC, RDW, reticulocytes
what is a PCV/Hct and what does it measure packed cell volume/hematocrit; it measure the percent of RBC in blood
a low pcv indicates anemia
a high pcv indicates dehydration or polycythemia
this rbc indicie is the measurement of density of plasma(how much protein is present) total protein (TP)
this rbc indicie carriers oxygen in rbc's, 1/3 of a pcv in most animals is made up of it Hgb
a low Hgb indicates iron deficiency or anemia
this rbc indicie is the measurement of the average size of the red blood cell MCV- mean cell volume
this rbc indicie is the measurement of the average amount of hemoglobin inside an rbc, considered the least accurate of all indicies MCH-mean corpuscular hemoglobin
this rbc indicie is the measurement of the concentration of Hgb in the average rbc MCHC- mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration
this rbc is a measurement of the variance in red blood size, higher number of this indicate increased anisocytosis RDW- red cell distribution width
these types of cells are cytoplasmic fragment of megakaryocytes, they have no nucleus and are not classified as a cell, normal life span is 10 days platelet
these are the largest cell in the bone marrow, they release platelets in five days megakaryocyte
these type of platelets are young platelets large
this condition has a decreased number of platelets, seen with conditons affecting the bone marrow, bacterial and viral infection, platelet destruction, immediately follow severe hemorrhage, leukemia treatment thrombocytopenia
this type of platelet inclusion invades the plates causing infection canine cyclic thrombocytopenia anaplasma platys(aka ehrichia platys)
this condition has an increased number of platelets, is a response to disease such as iron deficienty, will be seen following trauma thrombocytosis
coagulation is divided into these two pathways extrinsic; intrinsic
this coagulation method induces vasoconstriction that diverges blood flow from the site of injurty vascular
this coagulation mechanism forms a plug which controls bleeding froma minute injury of small blood vessels platelets
this working mechanism of coagulation is activated and a fibrin clot is formed clotting factors
what are the three types of bleeding involved with coagulation disorders purpura, petechia, bleeding into tissues
this cell disorder may cause hemorrhage, prolonged bleeding and clot reacions thrombocytopenia
this disease is hereditary, characterized by prolonged bleeding times, platelets are unable to adhere to injured vessel wall, even though there is an adequate amount von willebrands disease
this coagulation test is a test of intrinsic system, also called lee white method whole blood clotting time
this coagulation test is a test of the extrinsic system, blood must be put in in a BTT, test is independent of platelet function, abbreviated PT prothrombin time
this coagulation test is a test of intrinsic clotting mechanism, reaction is initiated by addition of calcium, abbreviated PTT or APTT partial thromboplastin time; automated partial thromboplastic time
this is a plasma protein produced by the liver that is necessary for clot formation, it is the precursor of fibrin fibrinogen
this fibrinogen problem may be associated with liver disease, may congenital in dogs, decrease fibrinogen
this fibrinogen problem may be associated with acute inflammation, tissue damage, or dehydration increased fibrinogen
blood factor I is fibrinogen
blood factor II is prothrombin
blood factor III is tissue thromboplastin
blood factor IV is calcium
blood factor VII is proconvertin
blood factor IX is christmas factor
blood factor X is stewart prower
blood factor XI is plasma thromboplastin antecedent
this is a factor VII deficiency that is seen in swine, german shephards, golden retrievers, minature schnauzers,abnormal platelet adhesiveness causing prolonged bleeding time von willebrands disease
what are the chemistries that check renal function BUN/Creatinine
what are the chemistries that check liver function ALT or SDH, AST, GGT, ALKP, bilirubin
what are the chemistries that check blood protein levels albumin, globulin, total protein
what is the chemistry that check glucose levels in blood blood glucose
what are the chemistries that check pancreatic function amlyase, lipase
what are the chemistries that check blood fat levels cholesterol, triglycerids
what are the electrolytes that are found in blood Na+, K+, Cl-, Bicarb
what are the minerals that are found in blood calcium, phosphorus, magnesium
Urea is the end product of what metabolism protein
this is a by product of muscle metabolism produced at a constate rate and filtered out almost entirely by the glomeruli creatinine
increased levels of this are seen with kidney disease, muscle degeneration, or with use of drugs that impair kidney function creatinine
decreased levels of this are seen with liver disease, pregnancy, or protein starvation creatinine
this blood chemistry is found in large amount in hepatocytes of the dog/cat/primate ALT
this blood chemistry is used in large animal testing to replace ALT SDH
this blood chemistry is present in all tissues of the body especially cardiac muscle, skeletal muscle, liver AST
this blood chemistry is an enzyme that assists with various chemical reactions, is present in almost all tissues, especially bone and liver SAP/ Alkaline phosphatase(ALKP)
this blood protein maintains hydrostatic pressure in blood and is produce by the liver Albumin
this blood protein is the end product of breakdown of hemoglobin which is excreted by the liver bilirubin
this coagulation test is non-specific and measures the time it takes blood to clot in vivo buccal mucosal bleeding time
this coagulation test evaluates extrensic and common pathways , is not affected by platelet numbers, requires a BTT prothrombine time
this coagulation test measures the intrinsic and common pathways, is not affected by platelet numbers, requires a BTT activeate partial thromboplastin time
this coagulation test evaluates common pathways, must be ran on a plasma sample fibrinogen
this is a cation found in all body tissues, and is closely related to calcium and phosphorous levels magnesium
this is the initial test for assessment of thyroid function total t4
this test is useful to diagnose hyperthyroidism when t4 levels are high normal free t4
this test is ussed in conjunction with a low t4 to diagnose hypothyroidism TSH
this tests the thyroids response to high levels of the active form of t4 and is useful when t4 and free t4 are borderline t3 suppression test
this test vitamin b-12 levels cobalamine
this test for b vitamin levels folate
this is the most sensitive and specific diagnostic test for pacreatitis currently avaliable PLI- serum pancreatic lipase immunoreactivity
Created by: chop