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lecture 1

____ can be thought of in terms of what causes the disease, how the body responds, recognition of the disease, transmission, treatment, and prevention of the disease Pathology
etiologies can be summarized by the_____ scheme DAMNIT
the D in DAMNIT stands for degenerative
the A in DAMNIT stands for autoimmune/anomalous
the M in DAMNIT stands for metabolic
the N in DAMNIT stands for neoplastic/nutritional
the I in DAMNIT stands for inflammatory/infectious/inschemic
the T in DAMNIT stands for toxins/trauma
it is very important to use _____ when speaking to lay public that they will understand terms
Knowing a _____ _______ allows for anticipation of tests that may need to be run Differential diagnosis
____ can be spread by many different methods including direct/indirect contact, vectors, and medical personal infections
This basically means it has the ability to multiply within a host infectious
all ____ organisms are infective contagious
not all ______ organisms are contagious infective
readily transmitted by either direct or indirect contact contagious
this is determined by ability of the organism to replicate in the host and its ability to produce toxins virulence
these are classified by shape, staining, and oxygen demands bacteria
non-cellular, contain only DNA or RNA never both, require a host cell to replicate viruses
classified based on their shape and spore-production fungi
cause specific neural disease prions
cells of the immune system can be divided into these categories peripheral blood; accessory cells
different immune cells have different roles in ______ and _______ inflammation; fighting disease
these cells respond to acute inflammation, phagocytize, and produce numerous chemicals neutrophil
these cells respond to parasites and allergies, probably phagocytize eosinophil
these cells respond to chronic inflammation basophils
these cells respond to chronic inflammation, phagocytize monocytes
these cells are produced by lymphatic tissues, some of which produce antibodies lymphocytes
neutralize antigens, produce epitopes, and produce cytokines phagocytes
the immune system can be divided into ____ and _____ innate; acquired
this type of immunity is involved in both innate and acquired immunity cell-mediated
these occur immediately and treat every antigen the same, and does not create memory cells innate immune systems
this type of immune system takes days to weeks to occur and is a specific response to a specific antigen that dose not create memory cells acquired immune system
these type of cells can be divied into three different types of cells lymphocytes
the three different types of lymphocytes are 1. B-cells 2. T-cells 3. natural killer(NK) cells
these types of cells are B-cells that produce antibodies plasma cells
_____ presenting cells are macrophages, dendritic cells, and b-cells antigen
_____ cells can be divided into helper cells, memory cells, and cytotoxic cells T
these cells induce cells to die through chemical stimulus cytotoxic cells
these cells present epitopes to b-cells helper t cells
there are ___ classes of antibodies based on their shape. Each has a different role in the immune response 5
these work by binding to antigens to block their function and by enhancing the immune response Antibodies
these cells neutralize antigens, produce epitopes, and produce cytokines phagocytes
the major antibody produce during primary immune response IgM
the major antibody produce during a secondary immune response IgG
the major antibody involved in allergic reactions and parasite infections IgE
the major antibody found in body secretions including colostrum IgA
this antibody is not found in all animals and has no known functions at this time IgD
maternal antibodies are considered natural passive
antitoxins or antibody transfer are considered artificial passive
recovery from natural infection is considered natural active
vaccinations are considered artifical active
this is used to treat rabies exposure and tetanus in people, but it can cause an allergic reaction to the antibodies transfer antibody
this antibody can cross some placentas depending on how thick the placenta is maternal IgG
the IgG antibody can pass transplacentally in this species primates
the IgG antibody can not pass at all transplacentally in these 3 species horses, pigs, and ruminants
the IgG antibody can pass some what transplacentally in these 2 species cats and dogs
An acute hypersensitivity reaction due to exposure to a previously encountered antigen. The reaction may include rapidly progressing urticaria, respiratory distress, vascular collapse, systemic shock, and death. anaphylaxis
Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction. antigen
cells of the lymphoid/hemopoietic/skin systems They function morphologically and phenotypically by processing antigens or presenting them to T-cells, thereby stimulating cellular immunity. dendritic cells
the part of an antigen that is recognized by the immune system, specifically by antibodies, B cells, or T cells epitope
Having a high concentration of antibodies produced in reaction to repeated injections of an antigen hyperimmune
A generic term for the presence of toxins in the blood toxemia
a heat-stable toxin present in the intact bacterial cell but not in cell-free filtrates of cultures of intact bacteria endotoxin
chemical neurological insults[3] which can adversely affect function in both developing and mature nervous tissue neurotoxin
a word that means "requiring air" aerobic
a word which literally means without oxygen anaerobic
a long, branching filamentous structure of a fungus hyphae
a type of unicellular fungi yeast
the presence of bacteria and toxins in the blood septicemia
the presence of bacteria in the blood bacteremia
a reproductive structure that is adapted for dispersal and surviving for extended periods of time in unfavorable conditions spore
the study of disease pathology
the study of causation, or origination etiology
the mechanism by which the disease is caused pathogenesis
an aftereffect of disease, condition, or injury sequela
the removal of a small piece of tissue for laboratory examination biopsy
Examination of a non human cadaver to determine or confirm the cause of death. necropsy
Examination of a cadaver to determine or confirm the cause of death. autopsy
a systematic diagnostic method used to identify the presence of an entity where multiple alternatives are possible differential diagnosis
a restriction in blood supply to tissues, causing a shortage of oxygen and glucose needed for cellular metabolism ischemia
an infectious agent composed of protein in a misfolded form prion
any inanimate object or substance capable of carrying infectious organisms fomites
a hospital-acquired infection nonsocomial
illness caused by medical examination or treatment iatrogenic
capable of causing infection infectious
capable of being transmitted by bodily contact with an infected person or object: contagious
Created by: chop



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