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VTPB 911 Vir test 1

questions for exam 1

QuestionAnswer
estimate the size of poxvirus 250 nm: arge
estimate the size of adenovirus 90 nm: medium
estimate the size of calicivirus 30 nm: small
estimate the size of circovirus less than 20 nm: very small
define virion nucleic acid + viral protines, lipids, CHO (everything that makes up the virus)
define nucleocapsid nucleic acid + capside; all a virus needs to replicate & transmit to another host
what are the 2 steps in viral replication a) replication of nucleic acid; b) production of new virions
requirements for capsid (4) strong / spontaneous assembly (doesn't use energy/ATP) / made of repeating subunits / subunits symmetrical
what type of subunits does icosahedral symmetry have? triangular
what axis(axes) of symmetry are essential for icosahedral symmetry? 2, 3, and 5-fold are minimum; can have more than this
tobacco mosaic virus has what kind of symmetry? helical
rhabdovirus has what kind of symmetry? helical
what kind of symmetry does poxvirus have? complex
define complex symmetry cannot be defined by a mathematical formula
envelope proteins, glycoproteins originate from the virus or from the host cell? virus
lipid envelop originates from the host or the virus? host cell
what viruses are enveloped? all (-)ssRNA, most (+)ssRNA, 50% of dsDNA
what are 3 functions of surface glycoproteins attachment (receptor-ligand interaction) / penetration (membrane fusion; receptor mediated endocytosis) / uncoating
what are the 10 steps of viral replication 1 attachment, 2 penetration, 3 uncoating, [4 early transcription, 5 early translation] non-structural proteins-replicate nucleic acid, 6 genome replication, [7 late transcription, 8 late translation] structural proteins, 9 assembly, 10 release (bud/lysis)
which direction does transcription go? read DNA strand 3' -> 5'; coding strand creaed 5' -> 3'
what does 'monopartite' or 'multipartite' mean? nucleic acid has 1 part or is in pieces (segmented)
differentiate between haploid & diploid haploid: 1 copy of nucleic acid; diploid: 2 copies of nucleic acid
what 4 characteristics are used when dividing viruses into groups? type of nucleic acid (DNA, RNA, ss, ds) / characteristics of genome (+, -, segmented, ambisense)/ replication strategy / virion structure (envelope, type of symmetry)
what are the 5 replication strategies employed by RNA viruses? post-translational processing (picorna, flavi, toga, calici) / stop-start transcription (paramyxo, rhabdo) / segmented genome (orthomyxo, reo) / nested set of mRNAs (corona, arteri) / reverse transcription (retro)
per baltimore classification, what are the groups of viruses? I: dsDNA / II: ssDNA / III: dsRNA / IV: (+)ssRNA / V: (-)ssRNA / VI: +ssRNA reverse transcribing / VII: dsDNA reverse transcribing
what is the goal of the virus? to make message (mRNA)
stability of viruses in -196C (liquid N2) years
stability of viruses in -70C (deep freeze, dry ice) years
stability of viruses in -20C with lypophilization years
stability of viruses in -20C (freezer) weeks (but freeze-thaw is destructive)
stability of viruses in 4C (ice, refrigerator) few days
stability of viruses in 20C (ambient) hours
stability of viruses in 55-60 C (131-140F) minutes
virus isoloation: technique release virus from tissue sample, culture on appropriate cell line, observe for cytopathic effect (cpe); takes time, expensive; basics - grow virus in cell cultures
direct fluorescent antibody (FA): technique antiviral Ab labeled with fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC); Ab applied directly to frozen tissue, smears, cell culture; fluorescence under UV light = presence of viral Ag; primary Ab's are all labeled; quicker than indirect
indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFA): technique same as FA but 2-step procedure; 1st Ab unalbeled, 2nd Ab labeled with FITC; cheaper than direct
hemagglutination inhibition (HI): principle, procedure, interpretation some viruses hemagglutinate RBC (HA test), presence of Ab inhibits hemagglutination; titrate serum, add standard amount of virus (previously titrated), add RBCs; presence of HA = absence of Ab, absence of HA = presence of Ab
serum neutralization: principle, interpretation Ab in serum binds to virus, Ab-bound virus is unable to infect cells; absence of cpe = presence of Ab, titer = highest dilution preventing cpe
enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA): principle & procedure microplate wells precoated wtih viral Ag, mixture of serum & Mab-HRP added, unbound material washed away, substrate added, color reaction if Ab bound to plate
Agar gel immunodiffusion (AGID): principle & procedure diffusion of Ag & Ab in agarose gel, line of precipitation formed with positive Ab; viral Ag in center well, positive controls in 3 wells, test sera in remaining wells
egg inoculation: sites of inoculation chorioallantoid membrane (CAM), yolk sac, allantoic sac, amniotic sac, intravenous
electron microscopy: procedure negative contrast EM (feces): sample homogenized, debris removed, virus pelleted, stained wtih phosphotungstic acid
parvoviridae: enveloped? non-enveloped
parvoviridae: size 20-22 nm diameter (small)
parvoviridae: symmetry icosahedral
parviviridae: environment? stable in heat, dessication, disinfectants; rendered nonvirulent by Na+ hypochlorite (30% bleach)
parvoviridae: replication requires S phase (DNA synthesis); loves cells that are constantly replicating; uses host cells' machinery; replicates in Lymphoid tissue (tonsils, lymph nodes), Gastrointestinal epithelium -> clinical signs, & Fetal peri-natal tissue (myocardium)
how does the parvovirus genome compensate for its small size? use of cellular enzymes; alternate splicing/initiation of mRNA -> can make 4 different mRNA's; virion assembly in nucleus; released by cell lysis
canine parvovirus 2: origin mutation from FPLV in 1970s
canine parvovirus 2: transmission shed in feces; ingestion/inhalation
canine parvovirus 2: clinical signs Anorexia, fever, vomiting, dehydration; Diarrhea (can be bloody, but not in all cases), hemorrhagic enteritis, Leukopenia
canine parvovirus 2: pathologic changes Necrotizing enteritis (kill GI epith) [segmented in intestine; Leaking bowels generate fibrin strands; Rough mucosa, redness]; Destroy of crypt cells -> no GIT replication; Lymphoid necrosis (thymus, spleen, LN, Peyer's patches), Myocarditis (if in-utero)
canine parvovirus 2: sample case puppy with vomiting, mild/mucoid diarrhea, worsening; - tests for parvo;EM of small intestinal concents found no virus; Immunofluorescence of small intestine was positive for CPV; Snap tests can give false -bcz the virus is not being excreted anymore
canine parvovirus 2: histological changes of small intestine Crypt necrosis; Loss of villous epithelium; Hemorrhage, secondary bacterial infections (because the epithelium is gone; this kills the dog); Intranuclear inclusions; Can't replace villus -> villi shrink
canine parvovirus 2: prenatal/neonatal infections myocarditis; myocardial degeneration, necrosis
canine parvovirus 2: diagnosis definitive: EM (feces), immunofluorescence (sm int); clinics: ELISA (fecal Ag, serum IgG, IgM), only helpful in the right time pd; other - virus isolation (long time), HI (serum, tests Ab's)
canine parvovirus 2: treatment supportive care, prevent dehydration, antibiotics, tamiflu (neuraminidase inhibitor)
canine parvovirus 2: control vaccination (inactivated, MLV), quarantine, disinfection
feline panleukopenia virus: replication rapidly dividing cells (GI epith, lymphoid tissue [LNN, spleen, bone marrow], fetal tissue)
feline panleukopenia virus: clinical signs Fever, vomiting; Bloody diarrhea, necrotizing enteritis; Leukopenia; Lymphoid necrosis; Abortion, stillbirth; Cerebellar hypoplasia; In utero infections only (Not myocarditis, as in dog)
feline panleukopenia virus: prenatal/neonatal infections cerebellar hypoplasia, ataxia; granular cell loss; degeneration/loss of purkinje cells
feline panleukopenia virus: diagnosis clinical signs, leukopenia; EM (feces), HI (serum), ELISA (fecal Ag)
feline panleukopenia virus: treatment supportive care, hydration, antibiotics
feline panleukopenia virus: control vaccination (MLV, inactivated), quarantine infected cats, disinfection (virus excreted in feces, urine, secretions)
mink enteritis virus: general characteristics Disease similar to CPV-2 and FPLV (enteritis, panleukopenia); Genetically more closely related to FPLV than CPV-2; Unable to differentiate from FPLV with most conventional tests
porcine parvovirus: pathogenesis Reproductive disorders (SMEDI complex) - not GI; Resorption (<30 days pregnant); Mummification (30-70 days pregnant); Poor doers or clear virus (>70 days pregnant)-Embryo/fetus can survive
define "SMEDI complex" reproductive disorders: stillbirth, mummification, embryonic death, infertility; associated with porcine parvovirus
porcine parvovirus: transmission fecal-oral (contaminated food & water) is primary; semen from infected boars
porcine parvovirus: infection of non-pregnant adult swine & piglents protective immune response; mild or asymptomatic infections
porcine parvovirus: control vaccination prior to breeding (inactivated, MLV); exposure of gilts to older females, fecels of older animals -> can lead to immunity
Aleutian mink disease virus: disease in aleutian mink vs non-aleutian mink aleutian (blue-grey coat color) chronic wasting disease; non-aleutian mink or ferrets - affected to varying degrees
Aleutian mink disease virus: transmission fecal-oral (virus in feces, urine, blood, saliva); persistent infection in alveolar lining cells of the lung -> chronic immune response
Aleutian mink disease virus: clinical signs, pathologic changes Multisystemic plasmacytic inflammation, failure to eliminate virus; Hypergammaglobulinemia; Immune-complex glomerulonephritis with renal failure (deposit in kidneys; Hepatomegaly, splenomegaly, lymphadenopathy
Aleutian mink disease virus: control serologic testing (counterimmunoelectrophoresis, IFA, ELISA); removal of affected mink
Circoviridae: symmetry icosahedral
Circoviridae: envelope? non-enveloped
Circoviridae: size 17-22 nm (tiny)
Circoviridae: straight or circular? circular
Circoviridae: sense ambi/- ssDNA (some are each)
Circovirus genome circular (ambi/-)ssDNA -> dsDNA (nucleus); replication via rolling circle mechanism
Circoviridae: PCV-2 is what sense? ambisense
Circoviridae: beak & feather disease virus is what sense? ambisense
Circoviridae: chicken anemia virus is what sense? negative sense
who does beak & feather disease virus infect? Psittacine birds: cockatoos, parrots, lovebirds, parakeets
beak & feather disease virus: clinical signs destruction of cells of feather follicles, beak; elongated & fractured beaks, dystrophic feathering (abnormal growth); immunosupporession with secondary bacterial infections
beak & feather disease virus: transmission oral, respiratory
beak & feather disease virus: diagnosis clinical signs; histopathology: pluck a feather ti send in; PCR - definitive
porcine circovirus 2: 2 forms postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS), porcine dermatitis and nephropathy syndrom
porcine circovirus 2: postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome - clinical signs 5-12 weeks old; wasting, unthriftiness, dyspnea, enlarged LNN, hepatitis, nephritis, pneumonia
porcine circovirus 2: postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome - co-infections Co-infection with other viruses results in more severe disease; PCV2 alone: mild disease; PCV + "PRRSV or PPV -> severe disease; Activation of immune response enhances PCV-2 replication; Other factors may be involved (ie stress)
porcine circovirus 2: postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome - diagnosis ambiguous lesions & concurrent infections make diagnosis difficult
porcine circovirus 2: postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome - histopathology intracytoplasmic botryoid (grape-like) inclusions in macrophages
porcine dermatitis & nephropathy syndrome: cause Porcine circovirus 2 infection suspected
porcine dermatitis & nephropathy syndrome: clinical signs vasculitis (skin, kidneys); skin infarction, membranous glomerulonephritis
porcine circovirus 2: example case 5-week old Yucatan pig; Respiratory disease; Open-mouth breathing; Bronchointerstitial pneumonia with hemorrhage; Fibrin thrombi; Lung: PCV-2 positive
asfarviridae: envelope? enveloped
asfarviridae: size 175-215 nm (large)
asfarviridae: symmetry icosahedral
asfarviridae: group? dsDNA
asfarviridae: replication? in cytoplasm (carries enzymes for transcription, replication)
asfarviridae: environment? stable in the env't against heat, pH
african swine fever virus: natural hosts warthog, soft tick, bush pig
african swine fever virus: 2 cycles sylvatic (african) & domestic
african swine fever virus: sylvatic cycle mild/asymptomatic infection; ornithodoros sp (tick) spreads the virus to pigs; african; doesn't go pig to pig, just pig to tick to pig
african swine fever virus: domestic cycle highly contagious; spread by uncooked meat, fomites, tick, secretions; can go pig to pig because pigs are in such close proximity
what is the only DNA virus that is arbovirus? (arthropod borne) african swine fever virus
african swine fever virus -replication? in macrophages/monocytes; lymphatic tissue, vascular system
african swine fever virus: host response animal has a failure to produce neutralizing Ab's
african swine fever virus: vaccine no effective vaccine
african swine fever virus: clinical signs Fever, leukopenia, nasal & ocular discharge; Vomiting, diarrhea (bloody); Cutaneous erythema (*), hemorrhages; Abortion; Not a clear-cut Dx based on Hx; Sphenomegaly (classic to ASF); Renal hemorrhage; Hemorrhagic LNN; Urinary bladder hemorrhage
african swine fever virus: reportable? reportable!
african swine fever virus: differential Dx classical swine fever (hog cholera); erysipelas (erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae); acute salmonellosis; porcine dermatitis & nephropathy syndrome (PCV-2); less virulent strains are difficult to diagnose & may resemble other diseases
african swine fever virus: diagnosis virus isolation (WBV's, spleen, LNN, tonsils); serology (ELISA); PCR; reportable!!
african swine fever virus: treatment no treatment; no vaccine
african swine fever virus: control eradication by slaughter
papillomaviridae: general characteristic warts on skin, mucous membranes; species-specific, but some can jump spp
papillomaviridae: envelope non-enveloped
papillomaviridae: symmetry icosahedral
papillomaviridae: size 55nm diameter
papillomaviridae: group dsDNA, circular
papillomaviridae: replication replication & assembly in nucleus
papillomaviridae: release from cell by cell lysis
papillomaviridae: resistant? resistant
papillomaviridae: transmission direct contact, fomites
papillomavirus: transcription early genes: nonstructural (E1-E8); late genes: structural (L1, L2); >20 total mRNAs; circular dsDNA
papillomavirus: pathology (stratum basale) (initial site of infection) Early gene expression Hyperplasia, delayed maturation -> DNA has more time to replicate DNA replication (no virions)
papillomavirus: pathology (stratum spinosum) Late viral gene expression Capsid proteins made Virion production
papillomavirus: pathology (stratum granulosum) Inactivation of p53, Rb (tumor suppressor genes -> inactivation = proliferation -> wart) Papilloma formed Accumulation of virions
papillomavirus: pathology (stratum corneum) Exfoliation of cells Shedding of virions
papillomavirus: pathology (general) epithelial hyperplasia, papilloma formation, intranuclear inclusions, cell swelling & vacuolization; cells continue dividing
bovine papillomavirus: subgroups? subgroup A (fibropapillomas) + subgroup B (squamous papillomas) = 6 varieties
bovine papillomavirus: most common sites? eyes, neck, shoulders
bovine papillomavirus: severity self-limiting; spontaneous regression
bovine papillomavirus & neoplasia BPV-4 + bracken fern: Papillomatosis in GI tract, Neoplastic transformation; BPV-2 + braken fern ingestion: Papillomatosis in urinary bldder, Neoplastic transformation (enzootic hematuria); Can get many types of neoplasia; bracken fern enhances it
equine papillomavirus 1 causes equine papillomatosis; affects nose, lips, inner ear; self-limiting
equine sarcoid: cause caused by bovine papillomavirus 1,2;
equine sarcoid: pathology Neoplasm of fibroblast origin (fibropapilloma); Transmission by direct contact, fomites, insects; Surgical removal, cryosurgery (high rate of recurrence); Most common skin tumor in horse; More like a tumor than papilloma (a benign tumor)
canine oral papillomavirus: severity? who does it affect? contagious disease of young dogs (<2 years); self-limiting, spontaneous regression
canine oral papillomavirus: where does it affect? mucous membranes of mouth, pharynx ("mucous membrane papillomatosis")
canine oral papillomavirus: possible other presentations of canine papillomas cutaneous papillomas (face, ears, limbs of older dogs, solitary); cutaneous inverted papillomas (ventral abdomen); viral etiology not proven; evidence of papilloma virus in some canine squamous cell carcinomas (neoplastic transformation?)
feline papillomavirus: who does it affect? severity young cats (< 5 years); higher prevalence in outdoor cats with exposure to cattle; self-limiting
feline papillomavirus: pathology ulcerated, nodular mass; sarcoid-like benign tumor (feline cutaneous fibropapilloma); head, neck, ventral abdomen, limbs; often misdiagnosed as granulation tissue, fibroma or fibrosarcoma
feline papillomavirus: similar to what other virus bovine papillomavirus-1; (also: feline papillomavirus 1 (COPV?), HPV-17, 9)???
polyomaviridae: envelope? non-enveloped
polyomaviridae: group dsDNA, circular
polyomaviridae: symmetry icosahedral
polyomaviridae: size 40 nm diameter
polyomaviridae: replication nucleus
polyomaviridae: severity inapparent infections (most species); serious disease (psittacines)
polyomaviridae: transcription transctiption of both DNA strands; early gene transcription (T-Ags) clockwise, late gene transcription (structural proteins) counterclockwise
avian polyomavirus: who does it affect common disease of psittacines (esp young budgies 10-20 days old): love birds, finches, canaries, macaws; falcons also susceptible
avian polyomavirus: clinical signs acute lethargy, crop stasis, feather loss/dysplasia; subcutaneous, muscular, and visceral hemorrhages; hepatic & myocardial necrosis; acute disease, high mortality; hemorrhage, myocardial hemorrhage, intranuclear inclusions
avian polyomavirus: Dx PCR (serology for new birds)
adenoviridae: replication in upper respiratory tract, GI tract
adenoviridae: longevity can cause persistent & latent infections in lymphoid tissue
adenoviridae: envelope nonenveloped
adenoviridae: group dsDNA; linear DNA
adenoviridae: symmetry icosahedral;
adenoviridae: size 80-100 nm (big)
adenoviridae: penton fibers penton fibers with terminal knob (bind to host cell receptors -> endocytosis); bind RBCs (hemagglutination), bind cell receptor (attachment)
adenoviridae: cellular entry receptor-mediated endocytosis
adenoviridae: replication in nucleus -> intranuclear inclusions
adenoviridae: transcription alternate splicing of mRNA's -> make lots of mRNA from 1 transcript
adenoviridae: gene products 1. Early gene prod: Induce cells to enter S phase, block growth supp genes (p53, Rb), Immune modulation (Block apoptosis, Inhibit MHC I exp (hide from T cells), Inhibit TNF), Prot needed for replic; 2. DNA replicates; 3. Late gene prod: structural prot
infectious canine hepatitis (CAV-1): who does it affect? young, unvaccinated dogs (<1 year); rare because of good vaccine
infectious canine hepatitis (CAV-1): transmission, disease progression inhalation, ingestion (*urine, feces, saliva) -> *tonsils, peyers patch -> LNN -> viremia -> liver, endoth cells (leaky vessels, hemorrhage), kidneys, eyes (corneal edema)
infectious canine hepatitis (CAV-1): clinical signs Depressed, fever, abd pain, vomit, bloody diar; Leukopenia; Conjunctiv, oc/nasal d/c; big/red tonsils; icterus (liver damage), petech hem (vasculitis, low clot fact), high clot times, DIC; Hepatitis, high ALT/AST; Corneal opacity, blue eye; Seizure, coma
infectious canine hepatitis (CAV-1): dx TVMDL: virus isolation (urine, feces, oropharyngeal swabs, liver), serum neutralization (paired samples 10-14 days apart), histopath (hepatocellular necrosis, IN inclusions); other: ELISA (Ag detection in feces), IFA (Ag in liver)
infectious canine hepatitis (CAV-1): control vaccination (MLV & killed vaccines)
canine adenovirus 2: vaccine can be used to vaccinate against CAV-1; absence of ocular lesions, not shed in urine; combination vaccines available; <6 months prior to boarding, showing
canine adenovirus 2: clinical signs subclinical/mild infection, self-limiting; fever, nasal d/c; harsh nonproductive cough; tonsilitis, pharyngitis; tracheobronchitis
causes of infectious tracheobronchitis (kennel cough) canine adenovirus 2, canine parainfluenza virus 2, bordetella bronchiseptica
equine adenovirus 1: who does it affect? young horses; foals are thought to be infected at birth from mare; immunocompromised horses will have a subclinical or mild upper resp tract infection; arabian foals with SCID
equine adenovirus 1 & arabian foals with SCID autosomal recessive disease; fever, cough, dyspnea, pneumonia (bronchitis, bronchiolitis) (what kills them), generalized infection, death
equine adenovirus 1: transmission aerosol droplets
equine adenovirus 1: diagnosis history, virus isolation (nasal & ocular swabs, lung tissue), conjunctival scrapings (intranuclear inclusion bodies), histopathology
equine adenovirus 1: control no vaccine available; arabian foals, foals with failure of passive transfer are at increased risk - will get sick around 3 mo's of age (after maternal Ab's wear off)
avian adenoviruses: name the 3 groups 1: inclusion body hepatitis; 2: hemorrhagic enteritis & marble spleen disease; 3: egg drop syndrome
avian adenoviruses: group 1 inclusion body hepatitis; chickens < 6 weeks; hepatitis with inclusions; hydropericardium; no vaccine in US
avian adenoviruses: group 2 hemorrhagic enteritis: turkeys, pet birds; hemorrhagic enteritis, enlarged spleen / marble spleen disease - pheasants, same signs; don't use vaccines for turkets in pheasants & vice versa!
avian adenoviruses: group 3 egg drop syndrome; chickens; soft shells or no shells; loss of pigmentation; vaccine available; horizontal transmission
Herpesviridae: envelope enveloped
Herpesviridae: size 120-200 nm
Herpesviridae: symmetry icosahedral symmetry
Herpesviridae: group linear dsDNA; fried egg appearance
Herpesviridae: transmission close contact; sneezing, secretions; causes persistent & latent (persistent infection w/o production of infectious virus) infections
Herpesviridae: alphaherpesvirinae - characteristics rapid growth (< 24 hours), cell lysis - kills cells in tissue culture & in animal; latent infections; ex) EHV-1, 3, 4; BHV-1, 2, 5; PRV, CHV-1, FHV-1, MDV, ILTV
Herpesviridae: betaherpesvirinae - characteristics slow growth (>24 hours); cytomegaly, latent infections
Herpesviridae: gamaherpesvirinae - characteristics lymphotropic; lymphoproliferative, some oncogenic; latent infections; ex) EHV-5, OHV-2, AIHV-1
herpesviridae: crossing of species barrier severe consequences! herpes B (mild disease-primates; death - humans), herpes simplex virus (death-primates, mild-humans); malignant catarrhal fever virus (sublinical in sheep/wildebeest; death - ox, white-tailed deer, bison)
equine herpesvirus 1: list the 3 forms respiratory (equine rhinopneumonitis), abortogenic (equine herpesvirus abortion), neurologic (equine herpes myeloencephalopathy)
equine herpesvirus 1: respiratory form equine rhinopneumonitis; mild respiratory disease; weanlings, yearlings, 2yo; fever, nasal d/c, dyspnea, cough; recover uneventfully
equine herpesvirus 1: abortogenic form equine herpesvirus abortion; abortions at 7-11 mos; weak, die in 1-2 days; sudden - healthy up to that day, then it aborts; hepatic & pulmonary necrosis; intranuclear inclusions
equine herpesvirus 1: neurologic form equine herpes myeloencephalopathy (EHM); most dramated; adult horses, high death rate; 2003 epidemic - 30-50% mortality; follows respiratory syndrome by 1-2 weeks; CNS hemorrhage, necrosis, inflammation; intranuc inclusions; NOT prevented by vaccination
equine herpesvirus 1: prevalence widespread throughout the world; most horses exposed; clusters of EHM in certain geographic areas
equine herpesvirus 1: disease & age of horse routinely cuases resp disease in young horses; older horses may transmit virus w/o showing clinical signs; abortion outbreaks, neurologic disease; results in persistent, latent infections w/o clinical signs
equine herpesvirus 1: causes of equine herpes myeloencephalopathy non-neurotropic strains cause 15% of EHM cases; neurotropic strains cause 85% of EHM cases
equine herpesvirus 1: transmission direct or indirect contact; nasal fluid; aborted fetus/placenta; latent infections w/reactivation following stress
equine herpesvirus 1: replication in lymphocytes (cell-associated viremia); vascular endothemlium (vasculitis -> thrombosis -> hypoxia -> abortion)
equine herpesvirus 1 & abortions late-term or weak live-born foal; pulmonary edema; small foci of necrosis in liver, lung
equine herpesvirus 1 & live foals weak, jaundice, respiratory disress; die within 1-2 days
equine herpesvirus 1 & neurologic disease Vasculitis, necrosis of small BV; Hemorr & necrosis in CNS (thrombosis, infarction) (same as what happened in placenta); Mutation of polymerase gene -> enhanced virulence (2003); Vacc during outbreak may lower virus shedding (but won't prevent disease)
equine herpesvirus 4 & equine herpesvirus-1 both cause rhinopneumonitis; more common with EHV-4; stays more local in 4, less likely to cause abortion/CNS problems in 4
rhinopneumonitis symptoms mild upper respiratory disease; in weanling foals & young race horses; recovery
equine herpesvirus 4 rhinoneumonitis, occasional abortions; occasional neurologic disease; causes latent infections
equine herpesvirus 4: replication respiratory epithelium, associated lymph nodes
equine herpesvirus 3: transmission venereal disease; transmitted by coitus; may be transmitted by intruments, rectal exams
equine herpesvirus 3: clinical signs nodules, vesicles (fluid inside), pustules (pus/neutrophils), ulcers, scarring on: perineal skin, vulva/vaginal epithelium, penis/prepuce
equine herpesvirus 3: common name coital exanthema
equine herpesvirus 3: severity benign infection; heals in 2-3 weeks, unpigmented skin may persist; reactivation of latent virus - don't break clinically affected horses, recognition of new clinical cases, eliminate mechanical transmission
equine herpesvirus 3 is similar to what other virus? genital form of IBR in cattle
equine herpesvirus 5: common name? multinodular pulmonary fibrosis
equine herpesvirus 5: pathology interstitial pneumonia (well-demarcated areas of fibrosis, linear or nodular pattern, alveolar macrophages w/intranuclear inclusions); vasculitis -> linear, nodular fibrosis
equine herpesvirus 5: diagnosis PCR (bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, lung)
equine herpesvirus 5: treatment supportive care, corticosteroids
equine herpesvirus 5: disease path alveolar walls damaged -> hyperplasia -> decreased transfer of CO2, O2 -> hard to breathe; macrophages; fibrosis; ex) lungs don't collapse when body is opened
bovine herpesvirus 1: 2 subtypes respiratory disease (infectious bovine rhinotracheitis/IBR), genital disease (infectious pustular vulvovaginitis or infectious pustular balanoposthitis)
bovine herpesvirus 1, supbtype 1 infectious bovine rhinotracheitis: rhinotracheitis, conjunctivitis, keratitis; secondary bacteria may result in bronchopneumonia; abortion, early embryonic death; latent infections in trigeminal ganglia; 'rednose'
bovine herpesvirus 1, subtype 2 genital; infectious pustular vulvovaginitis (vulvitis, vaginitis); infectious pustular balanoposthitis (inflammation of penis or prepuce)
bovine herpesvirus 1, subtype 2: latent infections live where? sacral ganglia
bovine herpesvirus 1: transmission respiratory & genital routes; direct contact, aerosol, semen
bovine herpesvirus 1: pathogenesis replication in epithelium (URT or genital mucosa); latency in trigeminal ganglia or sacral ganglia; periodic reactivation with viral shedding
bovine herpesvirus 1: how to distinguish it from other diseases wont' infect GI (hard palate, tongue)
bovine herpesvirus 1: secondary bacteria? -> bronchopneumonia
bovine herpesvirus 1: general problems bronchial, bronchiolar involvement; upper respiratory tract infection wtih ulceration
bovine herpesvirus 2: list 2 types herpes mammilitis; pseudolumpy-skin disease
bovine herpesvirus 2: herpes mammilitis sproadic disease of dairy cattle; widespread inapparent infections; ulceration of skin of teats/udder; vesicles, ulcers, scabs on teats; transmission via milking; decreased milk production, secondary mastitis; in the US
bovine herpesvirus 2: pseudolumpy-skin disease tropical areas (Africa); generalized skin disease; unlikely in US
what viruses cause malignant catarrhal fever? alcelaphine herpesvirus 1 & ovine herpesvirus 2
what species is clinically infected by malignant catarrhal fever? what type of disease do they get? cattle & wild ruminants (deer, bison); lymphoproliferative disease (gammaherpesvirus)
2 forms of malignant catarrhal fever virus? african (AIHV-1): wildebeest-assoc MCF, calves infec @ birth, shed virus @ 3-4 mo's, disease in cattle assoc w/wildebeest calving; N. American form (OHV-2): sheep-assoc MHC, lambs inf at 1-2 mo's, highest shedding 6-9 mo's, disease in cattle assoc w/sheep
Malignant catarrhal fever: transmission spread via aerosol from sheep/wildebeest to cattle/deer/bison; no cattle to cattle or bison to bison spread of virus
Malignant catarrhal fever: who is most susceptible deer farms & bison ranches
Malignant catarrhal fever: clinical signs Fever, depression, leukopenia, low milk prod; Nasal/oc d/c, dyspnea; Corneal edema (begin periph @ limbus); Photophobia, blindness (4-5 days); Erosions, ulcers, hemor of GIT, URT; CNS involv: inflam of vessels around brain, Death, Vasculitis
Malignant catarrhal fever: histological changes lymphocytic vasculitis; multisystemic lymphoid inflammation
Malignant catarrhal fever: diagnosis clinical signs, pathology, association with sheep; inability to detect viral Ag in lesions/tissue - can't do IHC; inability to isolate virus (OHV-2); PCR detection only (WBC's, LNN); can't grow sheep-assoc form in culture (have grown Af form)
Malignant catarrhal fever: vaccine no vaccine available
Malignant catarrhal fever: clinical diagnosis Any susceptible animal with sudden death, fever, erosions of the mucosa, nasal/lacrimal discharge, or bilateral corneal opacity should be tested for MCF; Particularly with a history of exposure to sheep, goats, antelope, wildebeest during parturition
Malignant catarrhal fever: prevention/control separate infected & carrier animals from susceptible spp: carriers - sheep, goats; susc - cattle / zoological parks should only introduce seronegative animals
Malignant catarrhal fever: differential diagnoses *BVD mucosal disease, Bluetongue (crustiness), Rinderpest (eradicated), FMD, Vesicular stomatitis, Salmonellosis, *pneumonia complex (shipping fever), Oral exposure to caustic materials, Mycotoxins, Poisonous plants
Malignant catarrhal fever: reportable? reportable!!
Malignant catarrhal fever: 2 examples Idaho 2003, outbreak in a bison feedlot - aerosol transmission - depression, nasal d/c, corneal opacity, ocular d/c; Texas 2008 - wildebeest-assoc [3 heifers died, killed wildebeest, sold 3300-3400 cattle]
reporting a serious disease problem USDA - APHIS - Veterinary services; texas animal health commission
what are 3 alternate names for suid herpesvirus 1? pseudorabies, Aujesky's disease, "mad itch"
what are the natural & secondary hosts for suid herpesvirus 1? natural host: swine, often asymptomatic; secondary: dog, cat, sheep, ox
suid herpesvirus 1: reportable? reportable! most US states are pseudorabies-free (domestic population, not wild)
suid herpesvirus 1: clinica signs in piglets <1 week High mortality (100%), Tremors, paddling, seizures, Hypersalivation, vomiting, Necrotizing hepatitis
suid herpesvirus 1: clinica signs in weaned pigs low mortality (<10%), vomiting & respiratory signs; recoverin 5-10 days
suid herpesvirus 1: clinica signs in adult pigs mild/inapparent infections; some with respiratory signs; rare CNS infectinos; pregnant sows: reproductive signs (abortion, stillbirth); disease less severe in older pigs
suid herpesvirus 1: transmission direct contact (secretions, urine, feces, milk, aerosol); ingestion of raw pork scraps (dog)
suid herpesvirus 1: replication/pathogenesis oral mucous membranes -> tonsils -> regional LNN -> viremia, cranial nerves -> CNS (neurons of pons, medulla)
suid herpesvirus 1: prevalence in feral populations PRV seroprevalence in feral swine from 10 counties in TX (2006-7): 145/409 pigs tested positive = 35.5%
suid herpesvirus 1: clinical signs intense pruritis involving patch of skin (espeically head/neck); encephalitis, paralysis of jaw, drooling, howling; lethargy, depression, paresis, paralysis, hypersalivation, convulsions; mimics rabies; death in 1-2 days
canine herpesvirus 1: why is it fatal in puppies? herpesviruses replicate better at lower temperatures; puppies can't thermoregulate, so if they get cold, they provide a better environment for virus growth; optimal temp is 33 degrees C
canine herpesvirus 1: prevalence? who does it infect? very common; fatal hemorrhagic disease of puppies (<2 weeks); puppies infected at birth (dam: oral, nasal, vaginal; transplacental; other infected dogs); high mortality - 80%
canine herpesvirus 1: pathogenesis cell-associated viremia; viral replication in blood vessels -> necrosis & hemorrhage, intranuclear inclusions; kidneys, liver, lungs; clinically - puppy isn't doing well, isn't growing well
canine herpesvirus 1: diagnosis *postmortem findings, *virus isolation (kidney, lungs), PCR (fetus, lesion material), immunofluorescence
canine herpesvirus 1: prevention warm environment - prevent hypothermia; reduce stress; minimize contact between dam & other dogs
common name for feline herpesvirus 1? feline viral rhinotracheitis
feline herpesvirus 1: who does it affect? primarily young cats (<6 months); >6 months - mild disease, abortions occasionally
feline herpesvirus 1: clinical signs sneezing, nasal discharge, coughing, dyspnea, fever; conjunctivitis, corneal ulcers; bronchopneumonia (lungs); intranuclear inclusions, necrosis (shown in pictures)
feline URT disease caused by: 90% is caused by herpesvirus & calicivirus
feline herpesvirus 1: diagnosis *clinical signs, *virus isolation; PCR (swab or tissue), serum neutralization, immunofluorescence (conjunctival scrapings), intranuclear inclusions in epithelial cells
feline herpesvirus 1: differential diagnosis? feline calicivirus
feline herpesvirus 1: prevention vaccination (MLV & killed)
alternate name for infectious laryngotracheitis virus? gallid herpesvirus 1
Infectious laryngotracheitis virus: looks like what other disease? IBR
Infectious laryngotracheitis virus: replication in upper respiratory tract epithelium; low & high virulent strains
Infectious laryngotracheitis virus: clinical signs coughing, sneezing, gasping, nasal/ocular discharge; laryngotracheitis (fibrin, hemorrhage (expectorate blood), necrosis, intranuclear inclusions))
Infectious laryngotracheitis virus: diagnosis egg inoculation (CAM), PCR
Infectious laryngotracheitis virus: prevention closed flocks, vaccination
common name of Gallid herpesvirus 2? marek's disease
Gallid herpesvirus 2: who does it affect? chickens 2-5 months old
Gallid herpesvirus 2: replication? in feather follicle epithelium; shed in dust/dander
Gallid herpesvirus 2: pathogenesis lymphoproliferative disease; 10-50% mortality; can cause lymphoma (tumors)
Gallid herpesvirus 2: 4 forms 1. neurolymphomatosis (peripheral nn) - asymmetric paralysis (legs/wings), enlarged peripheral nn; 2. cutaneous marek's disease (feather follicles); 3. visceral lymphomatosis (lymphoma on visceral organs - kidneys, liver); 4. ocular lymphomatosis
name 3 diseases in the genus parapoxvirus bovine papular stomatitis virus (ox), orf virus (sheep, goat), pseudocowpox virus (ox)
poxviridae, genus orthopoxvirus: shape brick-shaped virions; tubules on outer surface
poxviridae, genus orthopoxvirus: size 250 X 200 X 200 nm (big)
poxviridae, genus orthopoxvirus: symmetry complex
poxviridae, genus orthopoxvirus: group linear dsDNA
poxviridae, genus orthopoxvirus: transcription/replication up to 200 different proteins; doesn't need to use cells' machinery to replicate (has its own) -> replicates in cytoplasm -> inclusions in cytoplasm, not nucleus
poxviridae, genus parapoxvirus: shape oval, coccoon shaped; longer tubules (cris-cross)
poxviridae, genus parapoxvirus: size 260 X 160 nm (big)
poxviridae, genus parapoxvirus: symmetry complex
poxviridae: stability stable in environment (>1 year in dried scabs)
poxviridae: characteristic lesions papules, pustules, intracytoplasmic inclusions
poxviridae: diagnosis history & clinical signs, histopathology, electron microscopy (lesion material), virus isolation, egg inoculation (CAM)
orthopoxvirus: 3 viruses in this genus variola virus (smallpox); vaccinia virus (source unknown, used in smallpox vaccine, recombinant vaccines); extromelia virus (mousepox-erosive/ulcerative skin lesions, causes typical pox virus lesions)
parapoxvirus: bovine papular stomatitis virus - clinical signs mild disease of cattle <2yrs; papules on muzzle, lips, buccal mucosa, tongue, dental pad, nares, teats, legs; central necrosis, concentric rings (hyperemia), no vesicles, necrotic mucosa, ulcerative, proliferative
parapoxvirus: bovine papular stomatitis virus - differential diagnosis FMDV, VSV
parapoxvirus: bovine papular stomatitis virus: transmission to humans? via hand milking
parapoxvirus: orf virus - give 2 alternate names contagious pustular dermatitis, contagious ecthyma
parapoxvirus: orf virus - who is affected/ cutaneous disease of sheep, goat (high morbidity, low mortality); most severe in lambs (prevents suckling because lesions are on teh mouth)
parapoxvirus: orf virus - clinical signs papules -> pustules -> crusts; on mouth (lips, gum), nose, teats, coronary band
parapoxvirus: orf virus - transmission direct contact, fomites, susceptible to reinfection; transmit to humans via direct contact
parapoxvirus: orf virus - vaccination vaccinate pregnant ewes to prevent outbreak in lambs; scarification of axilla/inner thigh with nonattenuated virus from infected scabs; develop localized lesion with short-lived immunity
parapoxvirus: orf virus - differentiate from blue tonue orf virus - outside the mouth; blue tongue - inside the mouth
parapoxvirus: pseudocowpox virus: who gets it?f cattle; not very common; nursing calves may acquire lesions on muzzle, mouth
parapoxvirus: pseudocowpox virus: clinical signs pustules, ulcers, scabs on udder, teats; crab, ring, or horseshoe-shaped scabs (pathognomonic)
parapoxvirus: pseudocowpox virus: transmission mechanical contact, milker's hands, fomites, flies, transmitted to humans via milking
parapoxvirus: pseudocowpox virus: prevention hygiene, teat dips
fowlpox virus: who gets it? common! highly infectious disease of chickens, turkeys
fowlpox virus: transmission direct contact, biting insects, aerosol
fowlpox virus: clinical signs cutaneous form: papules on comb, waddles, beak, eyelids, legs, feet; diphtheritic form: lesions in mouth/pharynx/esophagus/crop/trachea, diphtheritic membrane formation, diphtheritic form may be confused with ILTV
swinepox virus: clinical signs mild cutaneous disease; body, ears, mammary glands affected; fever followed by papules, vesicles, scabs
swinepox virus: transmission via pig louse (hematopinus suis), direct contact
swinepox virus: prevention insect control
name 2 viruses in the genus aphthovirus. what family do they belong to? foot & mouth disease virus (ox, pig, sheep, goat); equine rhinitis A virus / picornaviridae
Picornaviridae: group (+)ssRNA
Picornaviridae: envelope? nonenveloped
Picornaviridae: size 25-30 nm
Picornaviridae: symmetry icosahedral (spherical, smooth)
Picornaviridae: replication post-translational processin: translated into 1 polypeptide, which is then cleaved into small proteins
foot-and-mouth disease virus: who does it infect? cattle, pigs, sheep, goats, llamas, wildlife
foot-and-mouth disease virus: basic type of disease vesicular disease
foot-and-mouth disease virus: morbidity/mortality high morbidity, low mortality; infectinos 2-3 weeks but shed up to 6 months
foot-and-mouth disease virus: disease timeline infections 2-3 weeks, shed up to 6 months; long convalescent period (Decreased milk production, decreased growth); virus in pharyngeal tissue up to 3 years (most less than 6 months); most animals recover
foot-and-mouth disease virus: cost $1 million / hour if not diagnosed (due to trade restrictions)
foot-and-mouth disease virus: transmission direct contact, food, straw, vehicles, animals, people, airborne droplets (up to 250 km: France to UK, 1981)
foot-and-mouth disease virus: clinical signs (cattle) 3-5 day incubation (1-14 days); fever, off feed, drop in milk prodcution; lameness, excessive salivation; vesicles - feet, oral cavity, teats, rumen; ruptured vesicles leave denuded areas, fluid contains infectious virus; acute death in young animals
foot-and-mouth disease virus: epizootics (non-endemic countries) US 1914-1929 / UK 1967-1968 / Taiwan 1997 / UK 2001 (2,030 cases; 6 millino sheep/pigs/cattle slaughtered) / China 2005 / UK 2007 / Japan (290,000 cattle slaughtered), Korea (50,000+) 2010-2011 / Bulgaria 2011
foot-and-mouth disease virus: endemic regions africa, South america, asia
foot-and-mouth disease virus: serotypes 7 serotypes, no cross protection; >60 subtypes; O, A, C are widespread; SAT1, SAT2, SAT3 in africa; ASIA 1 in asia
foot-and-mouth disease virus: august 2007 outbreak cattle in surrey, england w/signs of FMD; samples sent to IAH, Pirbright; FMDV strain O1 BFS 1860/67 isolated (used by Merial Animal Health for vaccine production) = escaped leaking drains, contaminated soil, carried on vehicle tires
foot-and-mouth disease virus: clinical signs (swine) sore feet, sloughed hooves; vesicles come & go quickly
foot-and-mouth disease virus: control & concerns vaccination (multiple serotypes, immunity only lasts months, ID of vaccinates, risk of disease spread from farm to farm, prolonged virus shedding, effect on exports); slaughter (acceptance of mass slaughter? carcass disposal)
Hand, foot & mouth disease cocksakie A virus 16; enterovirus 17; disease of infants & children, no relation to FMDV
swine vesicular disease virus vesicular disease of pigs in Europe, Asia; indistinguishable from FMD; clinical signs - lameness, vesicles on feet/nose/lips/tongue, transmission via direct contact/contaminated pork products; REPORTABLE!
differential diagnosis of vesicular diseases FMD: ox, sheep, pig; vesicular stomatitis: ox, sheep, pig, horse; swine vesicular disease: pig; vesicular exanthema: swine
porcine teschovirus: 2 serotypes & their locations teschen disease (severe form; africa, europe) / talfan disease (mild form; worldwide)
porcine teschovirus: clinical signs polioencephalomyelitis in pigs; ataxia, tremors, convulsions, paralysis death; medulla & ventral spinal horns affected
porcine teschovirus: transmission shed in feces; transmitted by ingestion
equine rhinitis A virus: previous name equine rhinovirus 1
equine rhinitis A virus: apthovirus significance only non-FMD aphthovirus (sequence homology with FMDV)
equine rhinitis A virus: clinical signs acute respiratory disease (clinical & subclinical); fever, nasal d/c, cough, pharyngitis, lymphadenitis
equine rhinitis A virus: how pervasive is it? large outbreaks reported (most horses are seropositive); broad host range, including humans
equine rhinitis A virus: control no vaccine; limited diagnostic testing; persistent, long-term shedding
equine rhinitis A virus: differential diagnoses EHV-1, EHV-4, EAdV-1, equine influenza virus
Equine rhinitis B virus: previous name? equine rhinovirus 2
Equine rhinitis B virus: genus? only member of benus Erbovirus
Equine rhinitis B virus: clinical signs similar to equine rhinitis A (acute respiratory disease; fever, nasal d/c, cough, pharyngitis, lymphadenitis)
Equine rhinitis B virus: differential diagnoses EHV-1, EHV-4, EAdV-1, equine influenza virus
Equine rhinitis B virus: zoonotic? may infect humans (low neutralizing Ab's in veterinarians reported)
Caliciviridae: envelope? nonenveloped
Caliciviridae: size 30-40 nm
Caliciviridae: symmetry icosahedral
Caliciviridae: group (+)ssRNA
Caliciviridae: replication 3 open reading frames, 1 polypeptide; replication in cytoplasm
Caliciviridae: release from cell lysis
Caliciviridae: activity in env't stable in env't; resistant to low pH (varies with species & strain)
Feline calicivirus: & URI's in cats 50% of URI in cats
Feline calicivirus: clinical signs fever, sneezing, nasal d/c, conjunctivitis, salivation; vesicles, ulcers of oral epithelium, nares; pulmonary edema, interstitial pneumonia (some strains); association with chronic gingivostomatitis (lymphoplasmacytic stomatitis)
Feline calicivirus: who is susceptible? young cats most susceptible
Feline calicivirus: shedding of the virus? continuous shedding for months (tonsil, oropharynx); carrier state, reinfectino possibel
Feline calicivirus: differential diagnoses FHV-1 (dual infections common)
Feline calicivirus: vaccines MLV vaccines (combination vaccines)
chronic gingivostomatitis: other name? lymphoplasmacytic stomatitis
chronic gingivostomatitis multifactorial etiology; associated with FCV (feline calicivirus); cessation of viral shedding with resolution of disease
san miguel sea lion virus sea lions, seals, walruses, dolphins; vesicles & ulcers on snout/flippers; abortions; 1st isolates from California sea lions in 1972
vesicular exanthema of swine: differential diagnoses indistinguishable from: FMDV (picornaviridae, aphthovirus), vesicular stomatitis (rhabdoviridae, vesiculovris), swine vesicular disease (picornaviridae, enterovirus)
vesicular exanthema of swine: clinical signs vesicles on nose, tongue, teats, oral cavity, feet (1-2 weeks, <5% mortality)
vesicular exanthema of swine: transmission oral transmission from dead sea lions, infected pork meat (1932-1956); eradicated from US
rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus: who/where is affected? hemorrhagic disease in European rabbits (domestic rabbits); tested as biologic population control agent in Australia, New Zealand; endemic areas - asia, europe, australia, new zealand, africa, puba; periodic outbreaks in US (currently eradicated)
rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus: clinical signs acute hepatic necrosis; DIC, pulmonary hemorrhages; up to 90% mortality, hemorrhage from mouth, nose
European brown hare syndrome virus causes similar hemorrhagic disease of hares as rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus; may show minimal gross changes; lower mortality than RHDV; may develop chronic hepatitis
Togaviridae family: arboviruses replicate in insects & vertebrates
togaviridae: size 70 nm
togaviridae: symmetry icosahedral
togaviridae: envelope? enveloped
togaviridae: group? (+)ssRNA
togaviridae: replication in cytoplasm; 2 rounds of translation
togaviridae: cell adhesion indistinct peplomers (E1, E2)
eastern, western, venezuelan encephalitis viruses: overview encephalitic diseases of horses with variable degrees of severity; more severe in young animals
western encephalitis virus western US, canada, S america; up to 20-50% mortality (some mild, subclinical infections)
eastern encephalitis virus atlantic & gulf coasts, central & s america; up to 80-90% mortality (most severe neurologic disease)
venezuelan encephalitis virus central, s america; up to 40-80% mortality; virulent strains arise by mutation from avirulent strains (1971-last outbreak in US; 1996 - outbreak in Mexico)
eastern, western, venezuelan encephalitis viruses: vaccine trivalent vaccine available; inactivated
eastern, western, venezuelan encephalitis viruses: human risks and outcomes EEE: elderly most at risk, case fatality 33%, avg 5 cases/yr; WEEE: children <1 most at risk, case fatality 3%, avg 19 cases/yr, <1/yr last 10 years; VEE: children most affected, fatalities rare
arbovirus transmission (EEE): other species affected pheasant, sparrow, pigeon, peking duck, chukar partridge, emu, ostrich
eastern, western, venezuelan encephalitis viruses: clinical signs fever, depression, CNS signs; wandering, photophobia, head pressing; blindness; paralysis; death
eastern, western, venezuelan encephalitis viruses: gross pathology hemorrhagic encephalitis; myelitis with necrosis
eastern, western, venezuelan encephalitis viruses: differential diagnoses WNV, EHV-1, RABV, EPM
management of mosquito-borne diseases source reduction, surveillance, biological control, chemical control (larvicide, adulticide), educate the public on how to protect themselves; vaccinate horses against EEE/WEE
Created by: shelbell8389