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A&P- Ch. 4

A&P- Ch. 4- Tissues: Living Communities

Cells of similar type and function cluster together to form Tissues
Classifications of tissues Epithelial, Connective, Nervous, Muscle
The study of microscopic structures of tissues and organs Histology
Composed of sheets of cells that cover & line other types of tissue Epithelial Tissue
Six Epithelial tissue functions Covers, lines, and protects Filters biochemical substances Absorption Provides sensory input Manufactures excretions Manufactures secretions
Each epithelial cell has an apical surface and a basal surface Polar
Faces the lumen or body cavity Apical
Faces the underlying connective tissue Basal
Lateral surfaces are connected to neighboring cells Junctional complexes
Epithelial cells have no blood supply Avascular
Most epithelial cells have nerve supply Innervated
Welded plaque; tough, resist tension and stretching (like Velcro); found in the skin, heart, and uterus Desmosome
Cytoplasm continuous; exchange ions, nutrients- quickly transmit signals through connexons; found in cardiac, smooth muscles Gap junction
Nothing can penetrate; prevent leakage; found in the bladder and GI tract Tight junction
Foundation of epithelial cells; meshwork of fibers that cements epithelial cells to underlying CT; varies in thickness; helps prevent cell from being torn off by intraluminal pressures; acts as a partial barrier between epithelial cell and CT Basal lamina (basement membrane)
If a cell contains microvilli it is said to have a Brush border
Function to move substances past the cell surface Cilia
Protective, waterproof substance in some skin cells Keratin
Single layer of epithelial cells; found in protected parts of the body because it provides minimal protection to underlying structures Simple
More than once layer of epithelial cells; stronger and thicker and are on parts of the body that are subjected to mechanical or chemical stress Stratified
Found lining surfaces involved in the passage of either gas or liquid; found in the lining of blood vessels and inner surface of the lungs Simple squamous epithelium
Includes the lining of the abdomen peritoneum, chest pleura, and the heart pericardium Mesothelium
Includes the the lining of the blood vessels Endothelium
Round, dark staining nuclei aligned in a single row; occurs in areas of the body where secretion and absorption take place; found in ducts in the liver, pancreas, portions of the kidneys, and the thyroid gland Simple cuboidal epithelium
Nuclei aligned in a row at the base of the cell near the basement membrane; found in the GI tract from stomach to rectum Simple columnar epithelium
Apical surface is blanketed by dense microvilli that maximize absorption by increasing surface contact with nutrient-filled lumen Absorptive cells
Manufacture and store mucus for lubrication; no ducts; opens in to GI tract, respiratory tracts, and conjunctiva; composed of modified columnar epithelial cells; secretes mucin Goblet cells
Multiple layers of squamous-shaped cells; occur in areas of the body subject to mechanical and chemical stresses (ex: oral cavity, esophagus, vagina, rectum); Continually being worn away or sheared off; replaced by cells from a deeper layer Stratified squamous epithelium
Substances that act within the body (Ex: hormones and mucus); specialized protein molecules that are produced in the Rough ER, packaged by the Golgi, and discharged by the cell Secretions
Substances that leave the body (Ex: sweat, milk, saliva) Excretions
Multiple layers (usually TWO) of cuboidal cells; found primarily along large excretory ducts (ex: mammary glands, salivary glands, sweat glands) Stratified cuboidal epithelium
Found only in select parts of the respiratory, digestive, reproductive systems and along some excretory ducts; extremely rare; function in secretion and protection Stratified columnar epithelium
"False" stratified- truly one layer of cells; cell nuclei are found at different levels across the length of the tissue; some cells do not reach luminal surface but all attach to the basement membrane; usually ciliated; respir. tract/ male repro. tract Pseudostratified columnar epithelium
Multiple layers of cells with varying shapes; stratified; basal layer of cuboidal/ columnar cells; superficial layer of cuboidal/squamous cells; able to stretch-found in areas where changes in volume occur (UB, ureters, urethra) Transitional epithelium
A cell or group of cells that have the ability to manufacture and discharge a secretion Gland
No ducts; secretes into the bloodstream; blood stream delivers secretions into the entire body; secretion is usually a hormone (regulate body functions; part of the endocrine system) Endocrine glands
Contain ducts (except for goblet cells; have a local effect (ex: sweat glands, mammary glands, sebaceous gland, saliva, anal glands) Exocrine glands
Usually surrounded by connective tissue rich in blood vessels and nerve fibers; makes substance; may be surrounded by myoepithelial cells that assist with the discharge of secretions into the glandular duct Secretory unit
Carries substance locally Duct
Glands package their secretions and release them via exocytosis as they are manufactured; majority of glands (ex: pancreas, sweat, salivary)Not destroyed Merocrine
Glands store their secretions and then release the top part (apex) of the cell into the duct system (ex: mammary, some sweat)Not destroyed Apocrine
Glands store their secretions and then release the entire contents of the cell (sebaceous)Cell is destroyed Holocrine
Watery; contain a high concentration of enzymes (pancreatic secretion) Serous
Thick, vicous; composed glycoproteins (mucus membranes- GI, resp) Mucus/ mucoid
Represents most abundant tissue by weight; skeletal and integumentary systems are composed almost exclusively of this; vascularized; form and function may be different; reserves for energy, protection, provides framework for structural support Connective tissue
Thickest fibers that form connective tissue Collagenous
Medium-sized fibers that form connective tissue Elastic
Very thin fibers that form connective tissue Reticular
Components of connective tissue Fibers, cells, and ground substance
Fixed cells that stay in the tissue Fibroblats, Adipocytes, and Reticular cells
Cells that are able to migrate in and out of the tissues Wandering
Types of wandering cells Mast cells, leukocytes, and macrophages
Fibers and ground substance makes up the Extracellular matrix
A homogenous material that ranges from liquid to gel to solid; composed of glycosaminoglycans; is a medium through which cells exchage nutrients/ waste with the bloodstream; acts as shock absorbing cushion & helps to protect underlying delicate cells Ground substance
GAGs Glycosaminoglycans
Strong and thick; composed of collagen; organized into bundles; found in tendons and ligaments that are continually being pulled and stretch; sometimes called white fibers; density & arrangement can vary Collagenous fibers
Composed of collagen but are not thick; thin and delicate and branched into complicated networks; form support around other cellular organs like endocrine glands Reticular fibers
Composed primarily of elastin; are branched to form networks; lack tensile strength of collagenous fibers; stretch and contract; found in vocal chords, lungs, and blood vessels; may be referred to as yellow fibers Elastic fibers
Secretes fiber and ground substance of particular matrix; Fixed cell Fibroblast
Fixed cell; found throughout connective tissue; form adipose tissue; filled with fat Adipocyte
Fixed cell; form net-like connections through cells; involved in immune response and manufacture reticular fibers Reticular cells
Wandering cell; white blood cell; found in blood and move into connective tissue during periods of infection; important in immune function Leukocyte
Wandering cell; carry histamine and heparin which initiate inflammatory response when released into tissue; usually found near blood stream where it can mount response Mast cell
Wandering cell; Phagocytotic scavenger that may be either fixed or transient in connective tissue; engulf microbes, dead cells, and debris; given different names depending on location Macrophage
Kupffer cell Liver
Microglial cells Nervous tissue
Histiocytes Connective tissue, skin, intestines
Loose tissue; most common type of connective tissue; acts to support & cushion organs and other delicate structures; has "open" spaces Areolar tissue
Filling of spaces with fluid during trauma Edema
When tissue leaves pits in tissue after being compressed Pitting edema
Loose tissue; commonly known as fat; highly vascularized; cells expand based on amount of lipid being stored; important energy store; might be classified as white or brown Adipose tissue
Loose tissue; resembles areolar connective tissue but only contains reticular fibers; found in limited sites of the body (spleen, lymph nodes, some parts of the liver) Reticular connective tissue
Dense connective tissue; Tightly packed parallel collagen fibers; tremendous tensile strength in one direction; found in tendons and ligaments Dense regular connective tissue
Dense connective tissue; Collagen fibers in thicker bundles than those in regular connective tissue; can withstand force from many different directions; found in capsules of joints Dense irregular connective tissue
Dense connective tissue; high concentration of elastic fibers that is extremely flexible; found in the stomach, large airways, and UB Elastic connective tissue
Tough, specialized connective tissue; AKA gristle; more rigid than dense connective tissue, more flexible than bone; does not contain nerves; can take a great deal of compression; composed of chondrocytes and matrix; Hyaline/Elastic/Fibrocartilage Cartilage
Most common type of cartilage in the body; found as articular cartilage at the end of long bones and joints and connects ribs to the sternum; collagenous fibers Hyaline
Similar to hyaline cartilage but contains elastic fibers; can withstand repeated bending; found in the pinnae Elastic
Found in intervertebral disks Fibrocartilage
Also called osseous connective tissue; hardest and most rigid type of connective tissue; well vascularized; provides protection and structure Bone
Ground matrix made up of calcium phosphate and collagen fibers Osteoid
Channels in bone that carry blood supply and nerves Haversion canal
Fibrous membrane that covers the bone Periosteum
Most atypical type of connective tissue Blood
Created by: mdupre8705



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