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name the 5 functions of blood transports nutrients & wastes, regulates pH & ion composition of interstitial fluid, restricts fluid loss at injury site, defends against pathogens, stabilizes temperature
describe how blood stabilizes body temperature absorbs heat generated by muscles and redistributes it
what is the temperature of blood? 100.4
how much body weight is due to blood? 8%
describe blood matrix 55% of blood, comprised of water (90%), plasma proteins, and fibrinogen
describe the plasma proteins albumin:55-60%, manufactured in liver, maintains water balance, transports fatty acids/thyroid/ steroidal hormones globulins:35-37%, alpha&beta move hormones/lipids/metals/fat-soluble vitamins; immunoglobulins (gamma) are antibodies
describe fibrinogen 4-7% of plasma, aid in clotting
briefly describe the cells of the blood 45% of blood, RBCs carry oxygen and carbon dioxide, WBCs carry out phagocytosis, platelets carry out clotting
what is the difference between plasma and serum? plasma has all constituents including clotting proteins, serum has all constituents other than clotting proteins
describe the origin of blood derived from the angioblast that splits into an endothelial cell (CV system) and a reticulum cell (blood cells)
where does hematopoiesis occur? red marrow, in the epiphysis of long bones and all short/flat/irregular bones
name the four things that aid hematopoiesis intrinsic factor, B12, erthyropoietin, reticulo-endothelial organs
describe the reticulo-endothelial organs liver: stores iron and is involved in early blood cell formation spleen: recycles red blood cells red marrow: contains stem cells that form RBCs, WBCs and platelets lymph nodes/lymphoid tissue: differentiation site for agranulocytic WBCs
briefly describe red blood cells originate from proerythroblast, manufactured in red marrow, carry oxygen and carbon dioxide
what is anisocytosis and what does it include? size variation microcyte: <6, iron deficiency anemia macrocyte: 9-12, sprue megalocyte: >12, pernicious anemia
describe the staining properties of red blood cells hypochromia: decreased color (decreased hemoglobin), occurs in iron deficiency anemia polychromasia: color variation (increased hemoglobin), occurs in pernicious anemia
define poikilocytosis cell shape variation
describe hemoglobin housed in cell's biconcavity, has a heme portion (oxygen affinity) and a globin-protein portion (carbon dioxide affinity), has 2 alpha and 2 beta chains
what does -cytosis mean? -cytopenia? cell increase, cell decrease
briefly describe platelets derived from megakaryocyte, which comes from a megakaryoblast, manufactured in red marrow, live 10 days, provide clotting
how do thrombocytes affect clotting? release chemicals, form a temporary patch, provide active contraction of actin and myosin filaments
describe the anatomy of thrombocytes cytoplasmic fragments with purplish granules, derived from the cytoplasm splitting of the megakaryocyte
describe the granules of thrombocytes alpha: house PDGF that aids in vessel repair dense: house serotonin for vascular spasm, ATP for energy, ADP to attract platelets, calcium, factor 13, enzymes
briefly describe white blood cells live between a few hours to 100 days, carry out phagocytosis, includes granulocytic (parent cell myeloblast) and agranulocytic (parent cell lymphoblast & monoblast) WBCs
name the granulocytic white blood cells neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils
describe neutrophils lavender cytoplasm, granules containing digestive enzymes and defensin, most numerous (50-70%), first to arrive in inflammation or infection, multi-lobated nucleus
describe basophils deep blue cytoplasmic granules, rarest (0-1%), increases with parasitic infections and allergies, resembles mast cells because both release histamine and heparin
describe eosinophils large red cytoplasmic granules, bilobated nucleus, 1-5%, increases in allergies and parasitic infestations
name the agranulocytic white blood cells lymphocytes, monocytes
describe lymphocytes derived from lymphoblast, begin in red marrow but complete growth in lymphoid nodes and tissues, smallest WBC, light blue cytoplasm and mostly nucleated, increases in antigen-antibody reactions, second-most numerous (20-30%), two types
describe monocytes derived from monoblast, largest WBC, most phagocytic, 1-10%, second to arrive in inflammation or infection, large horseshoe shaped nucleus, enlarge as they squeeze through vessel walls
describe the three stages of clotting vascular: vasoconstriction platelet: platelet aggregation coagluation: clotting factors come into play
describe the first step of the clotting process wound -> vasoconstriction -> platelet aggregation -> ADP release to increase size and stickiness -> emergency plug formation -> thromboplastin, factor 3 secretion
describe the second step of the clotting process thromboplastin + calcium -> intervention of factors 5-12 in sequence -> thrombin release
describe the third step of the clotting process thrombin + fibrinogen -> fibrin (full clot) + fibrin stabilizing factor (13)
describe prothrombin factor 2, produced in liver, requires vitamin K for its manufacture, measured in anticoagulant use (PT)
describe syneresis first step after clotting, the clot retracts from the vessel walls and pulls the tissue together
describe fibrinolysis begins within 2 days clot formation -> TPA release -> plasminogen converts to plasmin -> plasmin digests fibrin to which the clot is attached -> clot breakdown
the presence of absence of ________ is determined by genes antigens
define phenotype physical expression of a gene
define genotype genetic expression of a gene
define agglutinogen glycoprotein surface antigen found on red blood cells
define agglutinin antibody found in plasma or serum
define agglutination clumping reaction that occurs between an agglutinin and agglutinogen
what is the difference between forward and reverse typing? forward tests whole blood for agglutinogens, reverse tests serum for agglutinins
describe what it means to be Rh+ 85-89% of people, a surface antigen is present on the red blood cells
describe what it means to be Rh- no surface antigen is present on the red blood cells
when would anti-Rh antibodies be formed? when an Rh- individual is exposed to incompatability
describe the purpose of Rhogam and when it would be used Rhogam is used to prevent future incompatibility between mother and baby, because the birth of the first child may have caused antibodies to be formed in the mother. Rhogam is use after a Rh- mother births a Rh+ baby
why is type O blood known as a universal donor? it doesn't have agglutinogens that would cause a reaction with the receiver's blood antibodies
why is type AB blood known as the universal reciepient? it doesn't have antibodies that would react with a donor's blood
describe type A blood A antigen present on cell surface, anti-B antibodies present, compatible with A and O blood
describe type B blood B antigen present on cell surface, anti-A antibodies present, compatible with B and O blood
describe type AB blood A and B antigens present on cell surface, neither anti-A nor anti-B antibodies present, compatible with all blood types
describe type O blood neither A nor B antigens present on cell surface, both anti-A and anti-B antibodies present, compatible with only O blood
describe T and B cells lymphocytes, T cells are involved in cellular immunity and interact directly with pathogens, B cells are involved in humeral immunity and produce antibodies against pathogens
Created by: mhaye26