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F. TODD WILLIAN

Pest Management

QuestionAnswer
Synapse junction between 2 neurons or btween a neuron and a muscle.
selective herbicide only kills a certian weed
dessicant herbicide that kills by drying up the plant
efficacy effectiveness
activation stimulation of activity in an organism or a chemical
mode of action entire sequence of events from herbicide contact with plant tissues to morphilogical changes that result from herbicide application
biennial weed weed that lasts for 2 seasons
acetylcholine neurotransmitter that has a derivative of choline
fumigant chemical substance used in fumignation
non-selective herbicide kills all plants no matter what type they are
defoliant herbicide that causes all the leaves to fall off
residual something left after all parts are gone
periennial weed weed lasting three seasons or more
apoplasm is an important recipient campartment for nemitode secreted protines
insect vector an insect that carries diesease from one plant to another
resistant biotype a biologically enhanced plant that is resistant to certian herbisides
allelochemical biochemicals that influence the growth, development, and survival of other organisms
invasive species a species that is introduced and has a dramatic affect on the environment, physically and economicly.
quiescent seed a seed that will germinate and emerge, given the proper environmental and soil conditions
the only insectiside group that does not kill insects by interupting normal nerve transmission Microbials
examples of insecticide common names (active ingredients) malathion, acephate, lambda cyhalothrin, (any chem. name that does not have a commercial name)
weeds compete with crops for water, light, minerals
many of these species are C4 plants weeds
many of these species are NOT C4 plants crops
T or F : the majority of weed species growing in the USA are not native to this country TRUE
T or F : Bienniel weed species will not produce flowers untill the seconed year of growth TRUE
weeds can be hosts for pathogens, especially this pathogen Viruses
define the process of Herbicide Activation: Soil Applied = Application - Irrigation - Tillage - Activation
Phloem-Mobile Herbicides herbicides that are carried by the Phloem down the plant roots
Environmental factors affecting Phloem-Mobile Herbicides: Flooding, Drought, Temprature, Mineralzation
Advantages of insectacides keep insects and crops off plants, inproved yield, economical
Disadvantages of insecticides poision in food, bad for environment, detramental to water supply
3 names for insectacides common name, trade name, chemical name
How insecticides work to kill insects Disrupt nervous system
How do microbial toxins kill insects disrupt digestive system
6 major insectacide groupings organophosphates, carbamates, pyrethroids, chlorinated hydrocarbons, botanicals, microbials
Organophosphates developed in germany as a nicotine substitute, widley used, some are highely toxic to humans Ex: Malathion, Orthene
Carbamates broad spectrum controll EX: Seven, Furadan
Pyrethroids fastest developing group, very low application rates Ex: Pounce (3rd Generation), Warrior (4th Generation)
Chlorinated Hydrocarbons Low toxicity but very persistant, oldest class Ex: DDT, Thiodam, Golden Leaf
Botanicals Utilized widely for organic farming Ex: Pyrethrum
Microbials Derived from Bacteria Ex: BT, Tracer
Reasons vertebrate pest problems increasing? more consentrated crop area, CRP, land useage
General controll methods for vertebrates Habitat mods., Frightning devices, repellants, Toxicants
Simple Perennials reproduce from crown roots or tap roots Ex: Dandelions, Poke weeds
Creeping Perennials reproduce from modified stems(rhizomes, tubers) Ex: Johonson Grass, Bermuda Grass
Summer annual weeds Germinate and emerge during the spring, produce seeds in the fall, die in the fall Ex: cockleborr, water hemp
Winter annual weeds Germinate and emerge during the fall, produce seeds in the spring, die in the spring Ex: Henbit, common chick weed
Characteristics of Detramental weeds Dormancy, grow better, need for water, seed distractions
Effects of Detramental weeds Reduce crop yields, increase production costs, reduce crop quality
4 weed controll methods:(Exampels of each) (1)Mechanical(Tillage) (2)Cultural(Crop rotation) (3)Biological(GMO) (4)Chemical(Herbicide)
Why are weeds considered "Natural" and Crops considered "Unnatural" You do not have to plant weeds, but you do have to plant crops
Factors influencing absorbsion and translocation of Systemic Herbicides Lifecycle, Environment, Source/sink relationship, Time of Year, Relative Efficacy
Contact Herbicides Kills Fast and on contact through the plant leaves
Systemic Herbicides Slow killer, kills from the inside out via the stem, applied throught the soil, up through the roots/stem
Sequence of events for Herbicide mode of action Absorption-> Translocation-> Site of action-> Morphological change
Herbicide Mode of Action Classes: (Examples) (1)Photosynthetic Inhibitors (2)Amino Acid (3)Biosynthesis Inhibitors (4)Lipid Biosynthesis Inhibitors (5)Root Growth Inhibitors (6)Carotenoid Biosynthesis Inhibitors (7)Cell Membrane Disruptors (8)Hormone-like Herbicides
Photosynthetic Inhibitor Atrazine
Amino Acid Biosynthetic Inhibitors Glyphosate (Roundup)
Lipid Biosynthesis Inhibitors Sethoxdium (Poast)
Root Growth Inhibitors Mefolachlor (Dual)
Carotenoid Biosynthesis Inhibitors Clomazone (Command)
Cell Membrane Disruptors Formesafen (Flexstar)
Hormone-like Herbicides 24D
Risk factors associated with aquiring Herbicide resistant weed species: (1)Density of weeds (2)Weed species (3)Frequent use of Herbicides with similar MOA's (4)Crop rotation Scheme (5)Lack of non-chemical control options
Cross Resistance 2 or more Herbicides form a SINGLE resistance
Multiple Resistance Resistance of many Herbicides form 2 or more resistance mechanism
KY resistant weed species Smooth Pigweed, Johnson grass, Marestial
Impact of Glyphosate in US Agriculture: Changed the weed control process for the better started the market for major application weed control
Created by: stubaby428