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Lab 1- Hematology

Clin Lab 1- Equipment, Hematology and Morphology

macroscopic of large size, visible to the unaided eye
microscopic of extremely small size, visible only with the aid of a microscope
working distance distance between the objective and the top surface of the specimen when in focus
resolution degree to which the microscope will produce detail of an image; the better the microscope the better the resolution
field the viewable area when looking into a microscope
magnification the degree to which an image is enlarged
total magnification objective magnification power multiplied by the eyepiece magnification
parafocal the ability of the microscope to remain in primary focus when switching from one objective magnification to another; only fine adjustment is necessary
reversibility mirrors within the microscope that reverse the image so the specimen can be revealed
monocular microscope with 1 eyepiece
binocular microscope with 2 eye pieces
compound microscope composed of 2 or more magnifying lenses
bright field microscope utilizes a bright background; the image shows up darker
dark field microscope utilizes a dark background; has a special condenser and image appears lighter
fluorescent microscope uses fluorescent dyes causing the specimen to self-illuminate; main use is microbiology and virus testing
electron microscope uses electron activity for illumination; most powerful
neck structural site of attachment for nose piece
stand support for the microscope
stage where the slide is placed
stage fingers hold the slide
turret holds the objectives and rotates easily
objectives most microscopes have 3-4
4x objective used to scan or quickly look at a specimen
10x objective low power-identifies larger specimens and locates areas of a slide; fecals, urine casts, Knotts HWTs, external parasite viewing
40x objective high dry-
100x objective oil immersion largest objective
coarse focus knob larger knob-engaged first to allow object to be seen in the field
fine focus knob smaller knob- used second to bring object into focus
condenser gathers, organizes, and directs light through the specimen from under the microscope
iris diaphragm shutter attachment under the condenser which helps limit the amount of light to the condenser
The higher the magnification, the ______ light required. more
The lower the magnification, the ______ the working distance. larger
centrifuge separates cells and particles from the fluids they reside in; concentrates cells or sediment materials for analysis
micro-hematocrit centrifuge separates blood cells from plasma, PCV/TP, can show lipemic/hemolized/jaundiced/leukocytosis of the sample
refractometer specific gravity and TP
hemocytometer counts WBCs, RBCs, and platelets
Wet Chemistry Analyzer uses light specific wavelengths
Dry Chemistry Analyzer uses reagents
Electric Cell Counters counts RBCs, WBCs, platelets, and MCH
What are the 3 main functions of blood? 1. transportation of oxygen, nutrients, waste products, and hormones 2. regulation of body temperature, tissue fluid content, and blood pH 3. defense system- white blood cells phagocytize, platelets and clotting factors
What is the fluid portion of blood made up of? plasma
What is the cellular portion of blood made up of? Rbcs, Wbcs, and platelets
erythrocyte red blood cell
leukocyte white blood cell
erythropoesis the formation or production of RBCs
leukopoiesis the formation or production of WBCs
What is the function of RBCs? carry oxygen from the lungs to the body tissues and cells
Where are RBCs produced? the bone marrow
What is the primary solid of RBCs? hemoglobin
What typically causes anemia? lack of production, destruction by the body, or blood loss due to trauma
anemia decrease of RBCs
polycythemia increase of RBCs
What typically causes polycythemia? increase of RBC production or a release from the spleen
hemoglobin iron and protein molecules attached to the RBC
What is necessary for a RBC to function and gives blood its red pigment? hemoglobin
What can cause a decrease of hemoglobin? anemia due to blood loss or malnutrition (low iron)
hypochromic anemia anemia due to not enough hemoglobin in the blood
plasma liquid portion of the blood
What portion of plasma is water? 90%
serum plasma where the fibrinogen has been removed
plasma protein protein solids dissolved in the plasma
What is the main function of the WBCs? protect the body against microorganisms causing disease (virus and bacteria)
What are the 2 categories of WBCs? granulocytes and agranulocytes
What are the granulocytes? neutrophils, eosinophils, and basophils
What are the agranulocytes? lymphocytes and monocytes
What typically is indicated by a decrease in WBCs? bone marrow deficiency
What is necessary for clotting to occur? platelets
Where are platelets formed? in the bone marrow
Where are 1/3rd of all the platelets in the body located? spleen
Where are 2/3rd of all the platelets in the body located? in the circulating blood
hematology the science of dealing with blood and blood forming tissues
hematopoiesis formation and development of blood cells; usually in the bone marrow
in vitro outside the lining of the body
whole blood blood as it comes out of an artery or vein
aplastic having no tendency to develop into a new tissue
bleeding time the time it takes for a small, pin-point wound to stop bleeding
crenation the formation of abnormal notching around the edge of an erythrocyte
heinz body denatured hemoglobin that has fused to the RBC membrane
Howell-Jolly Body small, round, or oval bodies seen in erythrocytes when stains are added to fresh blood and found in various types of anemia after speenectomy or reduced splenic function
normocyte erythrocyte that is normal in size, shape and color
macrocytic larger than normal cells
microcytic smaller than normal cells
normochromic normal color of erythrocytes
unopette method for diluting blood in preparing for counting blood cells
polychromasia variation in the color and staining of RBCs
left shift alteration in the distribution of WBCs in the peripheral blood where there is an increase in the number of immature neutrophils
monocytosis an excess of monocytes in the blood
monocytopenia a deficiency of monocytes in the blood
lymphopenia decrease of the number of lymphocytes in the blood
lymphocytosis excess number of lymphocytes in the blood
eosinopenia abnormal deficiency of eosinophils in the blood
eosinophillia the formation and accumulation of an abnormally large number of eosinophils in the blood
basopenia deficiency of basophils
pancytopenia abnormal depression of all the cellular elements of the blood
thrombocytopenia decrease in the number of platelets in circulating blood
thrombocytosis increase in the number of platelets in the circulating blood
What type of anticoagulant/additive does a red top tube have? nothing
What type of anticoagulant/additive does a marble/tiger top tube have? a silicone plug and a clot activator
What type of anticoagulant/additive does a lavender top tube have? EDTA-ethylendiaminetetraacetic acid
What type of anticoagulant/additive does a blue top tube have? sodium citrate
What type of anticoagulant/additive does a green top tube have? lithium heparin
What type of anticoagulant/additive does a gray top tube have? sodium fluoride or potassium oxylate
What blood tubes yield serum? red and tiger top
What blood tubes yield plasma? blue, green, gray, and lavender
What are the 2 main goals in veinipunture? minimize trauma to the vein and reduce stress to the patient
What should influence the gauge of the needle used? patient and vessel size, amount of blood needed, use of the sample, tech preference
What influences the size of syringe used? patient and vessel size, amount of blood needed, use of sample, tech preference
What makes up whole blood? fluid=plasma, and cells=RBCs, WBCs, and platelets
Packed Cell Volume (PCV) the percent of RBCs in whole blood
What makes up the buffy coat layer in a PCV? WBCs and platelets
What is included in the complete blood count (CBC)? 1. PCV 2. Hemoglobin Concentration 3. TP 4. RBC Count 5. WBC Count 6. Differential WBC count
clear-straw colored plasma normal
yellow-orange colored plasma icteric
red colored plasma hemolysis
white colored plasma lipemic
What is the normal range for PCV for dogs? 37-55%
What is the normal range for PCV for cats? 24-45%
What is another name for PCV? hematocrit
What are the 3 most common plasma proteins? albumin, globulin, and fibrinogen
Mean corpuscular volume indicates size or volume of 1 average RBC (fl)
Mean corpuscular hemoglobin measures the mean weight of hemoglobin on the average RBC (pg)
mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration measures the average hemoglobin concentration in each RBC (g/dl)
thrombocyte count indicates the ability of the blood to clot
reticulocyte count used to evaluate the bone marrow's response to anemia-regenerative means the bone marrow is responding and there is an increase of reticulocytes
erythropoesis the formation/production of RBCs
What is the red blood cell maturation series from youngest to oldest? rubriblast, prorubricyte, rubricyte, metarubricyte, reticulocyte, and mature RBC
What premature RBCs are only found in the bone marrow? rubriblast and prorubricyte
What premature RBCs are only found in cases of severe anemia? rubricyte and metarubricyte
What is found in the blood when the body is regenerating or responding to anemia? reticulocyte
What animals is it normal to find a nucleus in the mature RBCs? birds, reptiles, and amphibians
macrocytosis an increase of larger than normal RBCs, usually immature
microcytosis an increase of smaller than normal RBCs, seen in iron deficiencies
normacytic normal sized mature RBCs
normochromic a mature cell that stains pink in color with an area of central pallor
polychromasia cells that have a blueish tint due to remaining organelles in the cytoplasm
hypochromasia decrease in staining intensity due to decrease in cellular hemoglobin
ancanthocyte/spur cells cells with irregular shaped margins and unevenly distributed surface projections of variable length and diameter coming from the cell wall
crenation cells with spiny projections evenly distributed around the cell membrane
echinocyte/burr cells spiculated cells with numerous, short, evenly spaced, blunt to sharp surface projections of uniform size and shape
codocytes target cells-
leptocytes large, thin RBC that is folded or distorted due to increased membrane and decreased volume (folded/lips)
stomatocyte large, thin cell that warps when passing through small blood vessels (piggy bank cell)
spherocyte smaller, dense and dark staining, lacking central pallor and can no longer maintain disc shape
dacryocyte teardrop in shape
elliptocyte oval in shape
keratocyte cell that often has 2 membrane projections (horns) also known as a helmet cell
torocyte punched out cell
schistocytes fragmented RBCs
rouleaux RBCs appearing as stacks or rows of coins (normal in horses)
agglutination clumping of RBCs
anisocytosis variation in size of RBCs
poikilocytosis a general presence of a variation in cell shape
Howell-Jolly Bodies RBCs that retain small, round nuclear fragments
Heinz Bodies small, refractive round areas of denatured hemoglobin attached to the cell membrane
basophillic stippling small, blue staining granules within the RBC seen in ruminant regenerative anemia or lead poisoning
What are the 3 areas of a blood smear? monolayer, body, and feathered edge
When the feathered edge is scanned, what are you looking for? platelet clumps, abnormal cells, and heartworms
What area is best when evaluating RBC abnormalities? monolayer
What area is too thick to evaluate cells? body
primary hemostasis formation of the platelet plug
secondary hemostasis stabilization of the platelet plug with fibrin
tertiary hemostasis destruction of the clot
hemostasis the ability of the body's systems to maintain the integrity of blood and blood vessels
What stages of heartworm develop in the mosquito only? L1-L3
What are clinical signs of heartworm disease? fatigue easily, cough, rough appearance, ascites, collapse
What are the 3 stages of treatment for heartworm? 1. adulticide 2. microfilaricidal 3. prophylactic therapy
How is hemobartonella felis transmitted? fleas and ticks
What kind of organism is Ehrlichia canis? rickettsial organism
microfilaria? baby heartworms
Where in a blood smear do you look for microfilaria? feathered edge
Created by: abarber09



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