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a decrease in the frequency of a behavior when a pleasant stimulus is removed negative punishment
adding something aversive as a consequence of a behavior resulting in a decrease of that behavior positive punishment
contains edta, used for hematology (cbc's) LTT- lavender top tube
plain glass tube, used for blood chemistries, serology, blood banking RTT- red top tube
contains clot activator and gel but no anticoagulant, used for all testing requiring serum, gel may interfere with drug level testing SST- serum separator tube
contains buffered sodium citrate, used for coagulation panels BTT- blue top tube
contains lithium heparin, used for lead determinations, some chemistry machines, confirm elevated potassium GTT- green top tube
fluid and cellular components of blood, must be transfused with in 4 hours, higher risk of transfusion reactions fresh whole blood
refrigerated whole blood that has been centrifuged and plasma has been removed, can be administered rapidly, only good for 30 days packed red blood cells
an alternative to packed rbcs, bovine hemoglobin solution, shelf life of 3 years, causes discoloration of patients serum, urine, and MM(yellowish to brown) oxyglobin
contains coagulation factors, proteins, and platelets has 3 types plasma
frozen within 8 hours of donation, contains clotting factors V, VIII, albumin, and von willebrands factor fresh frozen plasma
frozen 8 hours after donation, does not contain factors V, VIII, or VW factor, hemophilla and VW dz not treatable with this frozen plasma
contains everything FFP does only in a much smaller volume cryoprecipitate
substances such as bacteria, viruses, and pollen which produce an immune response bc they are foreign to the body antigen
a disease fighting protein produced by the body in response to the presence of a specific antigen antibody
clumping together of cells or particles agglutination
always comes 2nd, elevated coagulation tests, patient will have petechia, ecchymoses, epistaxis, and prolonged bleeding following trauma or surgery, intravascular destruction of erythrocytes disseminated intravasular coagulation(DIC)
a decreased number of platelets, most common bleeding disorder of hemostasis in veterinary patients, can occur as a result of bone marrow depression thrombocytopenia
in canines Dea 1.1+, or dea 1.1- & 1.2- considered universal donor in k9
higher than normal amount of platelets in the blood thrombocytosis
thr process of determining the priority of need and the proper order of treatment when evaluating a clinical situation triage
increased RR tachypnea
decreased RR bradypnea
lack of respirations apnea
increased RR with interspersed lack of respirations cheyna-stokes
difficult breathing dyspnea
normal quiet RR eupnea
patient stands instead of sits, has abdominal movement, extended neck, open mouth, lifted head orthopnea
air in the thoracic cavity pneumothorax
collapsed lungs atelectasis
inflammation of the pleural membranes pleuritis
inflammation of the lungs caused by bacteria, virus, or chemical irritants pneumonia
requires an aterial sample, gives more specific data on oxygenation, ventilation, and acid/base status of the patient arterial blood gas
an increase in nitrogen containing waste products in the blood(BUN and creatine) azotemia
loss of consciousness, apnea or agonal breathing, no palpable pulse, no heartbeat, dilated pupils ares signs of cardiac arrest
what does ABCD stand for in reference to CPCR airway, breathing, cardiac, drugs
cardiopulmonary cerebral resuscitation CPCR
give ______ breaths/min with a max of 20 cm of pressure 30-40
in small animals <7 kgs, compressions are done_________ with one hand directly over the heart
in large animals > 7kgs, compressions will be done ____________ with both hands over the caudal 1/3 of the sternum
Norm-R, 0.9% Nacl, & LRS are all considered isotonic crystalloids
hespan & hetastach are considered synthetic colloids
the tension exerted by blood on the arterial walls blood pressure
the % of hemoglobin that is saturated with oxygen pulse oximetry
the amount of CO2 inhaled/exhaled by the patient capnography
recording of the electrical activity on the surface of the body that is generated by the heart ECG, electrocardiography
what are the four colors of the ECG leads black, white, red, green
where does the white ECG lead go right front limb(white on the right)
where does the black ECG lead go left front limb(smoke over fire)
where does the red ECG lead go left rear limb(smoke over fire)
where does the green ECG lead go right rear limb(green for go/gas)
abnormally low body temp hypothermia
ways to combat hypothermia warm water bottles, warm towels, warm bath, blow dryer, heat lamp, incubator
medication applied topically onto the eye ophthalmic application
medication applied topically into the ear otic application
ID administration intradermal
SQ administration subcutaneous
IM administration intramuscular
IP administration intraperitoneal
IV administration intravenous
Epidural administration injection into the L7-S1(lumbosacral junction)
IO administration intraosseous(into the bone marrow)
observable data that is not measurable subjective data
data that can be measured or quantified objective data
the first step in reaching an ultimate diagnosis of the patients illness obtaining an accurate history
lymph nodes cranial to the angle of the mandible submandibular
lymph nodes cranial to the shoulder joint prescapular
lymph nodes on the dorsal stifle popliteal
lymph nodes in the arm pit region axillary
lymph nodes in the inguinal area near the femoral artery and vein inguinal
when the eyelids rolls inward so that the lashes rub the cornea entropian
eyelids are loose and not in contact with the eye ectropian
this tests for a blockage in the nasolacrimal duct, corneal abrasions, or corneal ulcers fluorescein stain
this test is for the over or under production of tears by the lacrimal gland schirmer tear test
this tests the intraocular pressure of the eye tonopen test
premature ventricular contractions PVC
burrowing mites that live in the hair follicles and sebaceous glands normally but an immunodeficiency that is either genetic or mite induced causes an infestation to become apparent demodex
the eye dz of increased intraocular pressures glaucoma
hardening or thickening of the lens of the eye cataracts
abrasions or indentations usually found on the cornea ulcers
KCS= dry eye keuratoconjunctivitis sicca
eye meds with steroids should not be used in patients with_______ immunodeficiency, or ulcers
introduction of fluid into the rectum and colon to stimulate bowel activity, evacuate the Lg intestine for diagnostic procedures, or to irrigate the colon enema
contraindications of enemas don't use if bowel is perforated
______ enemas should never be used in cats or dogs phosphate(Fleet)
phase of wound healing immediately after insult(blood clot formation) inflammatory phase
phase of wound healing 6 hours post injury, neutrophils and monocytes travel to the site to remove foreign material debridement phase
phase of wound healing that is 3-5 days post injury, now tissue formation becomes visible repair phase
phase of wound healing that is the longest and final phase, wound strength increases to max level maturation phase
this type of bandage is used for really gross dead wounds to remove exudates when the bandage is removed dry to dry
this type of bandage is used for sorta gross dried or semi dried exudates are removed when bandage is removed wet to dry
this bandage is used when lg amounts of exudates and transudates are present, wound is very painful, absorbs fluid, causes less pain upon removal, enhances capillary action and drainage wet to wet
total infusion x drops per ml / infusion time(1440 mins) to calculate drops per min
40-60ml/kg/day maintenance fluids
% dehydration x kg x 10 replacement fluids
replacement fluids+ maintenance fluids + on loses daily fluid requirement
need x need/ what you have adding dextrose to fluids ex: 5%/50% x 1000ml
pulmonary contusions, existing pulmonary edema, brain injury, congestive heart failure are all reason to contraindications for rapid fluid therapy
CVP decreased, HR increased, CRT prolonged, BP hypotensive, urine output decreased, weak/thready pulses, pale MM, cold extremities are all signs of signs of shock
the point of origin of the hearts electrical activity SA node
depolarization spreads quickly from the SA node to the atria
depolarization moves caudally from the atria toward the AV node
the AV node continues this activity to the proximal portion of the ventricular conduction system aka bundle of His
any pattern of electrical activity of the heart that differs from the healthy awake animal cardiac arrhythmia
the heart muscle contracts during systole
the heart muscle relaxes during diastole
the 3 main recognizable waves called deflection waves are the: P wave, QRS complex, T wave
appears as irregular undulating line, with complete absence of recognizable QRS complexes ventricular fibrillation(V-Fib)
ineffective and uncoordinated ventricular contractions that occur as a bizarre, wide complex on the ECG tracing PVC
prolonged interval between the P wave and QRS complex 1st degree heart block
some p wave are not followed by QRS complexes 2nd degree heart block
atrial and ventricular contractions occurs independently, P waves occur in one pattern QRS complexes occur as completely different pattern 3rd degree heart block
normal USG for a dog 1.015-1.040
normal USG for a cat 1.015-1.060
1. gather data 2. identify & prioritize data 3. develop & implement a plan of care 4. evaluate results 4 steps to veterinary practice model
coffin lid shaped urine crystal triple phosphate
envelope shaped urine crystal calcium oxylate dihydrate
fence post shaped urine crystal calcium oxylate monohydrate
involuntary rapid movement of the eyes nystagmus
use this er drug for bradycardia/asystole atropine
use this er drug for vfib/asystole epinephrine
use this er drug for ventricular arrythemias lidocaine
use this er drug for reversal of opiod agents naloxone
use this er drug to decrease intracranial pressure mannitol
use this er drug to stimulate CNS in order to increase respirations doxapram
used for immobilization of fractures distal to the elbow or stifle before surgery modified robert jones bandage
applied after reduction of hip luxation ehmer sling
used to prevent weight bearing on the forelimb velpeau sling
low urine ph= acidic
high urine ph= basic/alkaline
rare unless animal is deprived of water, high levels of serum sodium hypernatremia
is common in animals with renal failure, vomiting/diarrhea, diuretics are used or excessive fluids are given, low levels of serum sodium hyponatremia
seen in patients with adrenal cortical hypofunction, acidosis, late stage renal failure, high serum potassium levels hyperkalemia
seen in patients with alkalosis, insulin therapy, or excessive fluid loss, low levels of serum potassium levels hypokalemia
cloudy serum sample with excessive lipids, often due to diet or metabolic disease lipemic
pink to reddish tinted serum sample, caused by damage to rbc's hemolytic
yellow tinge to serum sample, indicative of liver disease icteric
by product of muscle metabolism, produced consistently and filtered by the glomeruli, creatinine
end product of protein metabolism exerted primarily by the kidneys, levels are increased in renal insufficiency Blood Urea Nitrogen(BUN)
breaks down long chain fatty acids into FA's and alcohols, usually seen in low levels but will increase with pancreatitis Lipase
breaks down starches and glycogen, concentrations of this are not considered useful in cats, hemolysis and lipemia may elevate the values amylase
test of choice to determine exocrine pancreatic insufficiency in dogs(common cause of malabsorption, but rarely occurs in cats) Trypsinlike Immunoreactivity on Serum (TLI)
found in large amounts in hepatocytes of dog/cat/primate, useful and specific test for liver function in these species, increased levels will be seen if hepatocytes are damaged, do not freeze samples ALT(alanine aminotransferase or alanine transaminase)
present in all tissues of the body(esp cardiac & skeletal muscle, and the liver) AST(aspartate aminotransferase or aspartate transaminase)
present in all tissues esp. bone and liver, increases are due to increase in production rather than reduced excretion, increases in young animals is common due to bone growth or old animals with bone injury, Alk Phos(alkaline phosphate)
this species have higher than normal AST values horses
found in most tissues, nonspecific test, used as supporting information when combined with other test LDH(lactate dehydrogenase)
liver, pancrease, kidney functions, elevations in serum usually due to liver, in small animals elevations of this along with ALT are a good indication of fatty liver dz GGT(Y-glutamyltransferase)
primarily in liver cells, hepatocellular damage or necrosis, used in lg animals to replace ALT, very unstable must process in house to be accurate SD(Sorbitol dehydrogenase)
produced by metabolism of heme, associated with jaundice Bilirubin
amounts of this in the urine is never normal except in cattle Bilirubin
50% of Bilirubin will be lost in _______ hours if left in light the first
breakdown or excretion of protein or protein systhesis by the liver will alter results along with over hydration or dehydration TP(total protein)
decreased levels occur with chronic liver dz, malnutrition, malasorption, enteritis, parasites trauma, blood loss ALB(Albumin)
a very complex group of serum proteins, one of the coagulation factors, increases seen with inflammation/infection, antigenic stimulation Globulins
calculated by dividing serum albumin results by the globulin results, early indication of abnormal protein profile A:G
formed by the liver, secreted into the bile, store by gallbladder between meals, activated by fats to be secreted into the small intestine Bile Acids
composed of anions(negatively charged ions) and cations(positively charged ions) Electrolytes
most abundant extracellular cation, plays major distribution role in distributing water Na+
cation that is 90% intracellular, indicator of serum acidosis or alkalosis K+
most abundant extracellular anion, important role in water/osmotic pressure and electrolyte balance Cl-
99% is made in bone, has an inverse relationship with phosphorous Ca2+
80% is found in bone, remaining % functions to metabolize carbs, release & store energy Phosphorous
cation found in all body tissues, closely related to calcium and phosphorous levels Mg2+
frequent urination pollakiuria
increase in urine output or production polyuria
complete absence of urine formation or elimination anuria
storage of urine in the bladder as it fills continence
the passage of urine from the bladder without conscius control, unable to store urine incontinence
physiological term for emptying the bladder micturition
difficulty or painful urination dysuria
pus in the urine pyuria
proper term for ear mites otodecties cynotis
a tear or rent in the diaphragm causing abdominal organs to enter the chest cavity diaphragmatic hernia
these pulses are indicative of a heart problem in animals jugular
relatively clean wounds that are pulled together with sutures and healing progresses with out complications EX: sm lacerations minor/clean wounds primary or first intention wound healing
wounds that are left open and allowed to heal from the inner areas out EX: large infected wounds second intention wound healing
allowed to heal initially by second intention and eventually closed with sutures EX: Lg degloving injuries, burns third intention wound healing
removal of necrotic tissue debridement
exam of this system is nose/throat> auscultate the lungs watching the animal breathe respiratory system
exam of this system is coat> nails> skin> skin turgor> skin palpation integumentary system
exam begins with MMC and CRT > jugular flow> palpate femoral pulse> ausultate the heart> cardiovascular system
exam begins with mouth> teeth> gums> palpate neck for esophageal masses or FB> palpate cranial/caudal abdomen> rectal gastrointestinal system
exam begins with palpate kidneys> palpate bladder> Palpate mammary chains> urogenital system
exam begins with palpate muscle of head and limbs> manipulation of joints> palpate long bones and vertebrae musculoskeletal system
exam begins with mental status> spinal cord reflexes> superficial and deep pain> panniculus reflex Nervous system
exam begins with palpable lymph nodes: submandibular> prescapular> popliteal> axillary> inguinal peripheral lymph nodes
exam begins with reflexes/responses to visual stimuli> discharge> corneal changes> color of conjunctiva> pulis size eyes
exam begins with response to auditory stimuli> debris in the earl canal or unusual or excessive odor> animal shaking head? ears
Created by: chop



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