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A&P- Ch. 2 & 3

Anything that occupies space and has mass Matter
Matter can exist as: Solid, liquid, gas
Substances that can not be separated into smaller parts by any natural means. Referred to by a chemical number and organized on the Periodic Table Elements
The number of protons in an atom Atomic number
How much the atom weighs Atomic weight
Major elements of the body Oxygen, Carbon, Hydrogen, Nitrogen
Minor elements of the body Calcium, Phosphorus, Potassium, Sulfur, Sodium, Chlorine, Magnesium
The smallest unit of an element that retains the unique properties of that element Atom
Subatomic particles that compose an atom Protons, neutrons, electrons
Subatomic particles found in the nucleus Protons and neutrons
Atomic mass of each proton and neutron ~1
Protons and neutrons determine this of an atom Atomic weight
Positive charge particles Protons
Negatively charged particles Electrons
Neutrally charged particles Neutrons
Net charge of atoms are neutral because they have equal numbers of what? Protons and electrons
What are the tiny particles that remain in constant motion around the nucleus? Electrons
What is so tiny that their mass doesn't contribute to the atomic weight of an atom? Electrons
Pathways around the nucleus where electrons orbit Electron shells
How many electrons can be in the first electron shell? 2
How many electrons can be in the second and third electron shells? 8
The name of an atom when the outermost electron shell of an atom is not full Reactive
The name of an atom when the outermost electron shell of an atom is full Inert
What tells us how many protons and electrons an atom has? Atomic number
If an atom loses or gains an electron in an attempt to fill its outermost shell then is becomes positively or negatively charged thereby becoming what? Ion
If an atom has a different number of neutrons, they are called what of the element? Isotopes
If an atom wants to release an electron, it becomes more positively charged Positive ion
If an atom wants to gain an electron, it becomes more negatively charged. Negative ion
When atoms are joined together by chemical bonds. These are the smallest part of a substance that retains the properties of the substance Molecule
When two or more atoms of the same element are joined together Molecule of the element
A substance made up of two or more elements Compound
How atoms are attached to one another Bonds
Atoms are sharing or transferring electrons between them. By sharing or giving away electrons, each atom can be sure that its outermost shell is full Chemical bonds
Bonds formed when atoms share bonds Covalent bonds
1 electron is shared between two atoms Single covalent bond
2 electrons are shared between 2 atoms Double covalent bond
3 electrons are shared between 2 atoms Triple covalent bond
Shared electrons in a covalently bonded molecule may spend more time near one atom than another Polar molecule
Formed when electrons are transferred from one atom to another (not sharing electrons) Ionic bonds
Ions with a net positive charge Cations
Ions with a net negative charge Anions
Important in contraction of muscle fibers, transmission of nerve impulses, and maintenance of water balance Ions
Bond between hydrogen atoms already covalently bonded in a molecule to oppositely charged particles; Found between water molecules and DNA to stabilize shape Hydrogen bonds
The formation and breaking of chemical bonds; require energy input or release of energy Chemical reactions
Reaction is described in written form X + Y -> Z Chemical equation
New and more complex molecule is made from simpler chemicals; require energy X + Y = XY Synthesis reaction
Single complex chemical is broken down into multiple, simpler chemicals; reactions expend or release energy XY -> X + Y Decomposition reaction
Certain atoms are exchanged between molecules. Combination of synthesis and decomposition reaction; have no net energy requirements. Energy released from decomposition portion helps with synthesis portion. XY + ZW -> XZ + YW Exchange reaction
Factors that influence reaction rates: Temperature, concentration of reactants, activation energy
The energy required for a reaction to happen Activation energy
Some reactions require the presence of a...? (Reaction speed is increased when this is present) Catalyst or enzyme
Molecules that contain carbon. Organic molecules
4 groups of Organic Molecules Carbohydrates, Lipids, Proteins, and Nucleic Acids
Carbohydrates; used for energy storage and cellular structures. Glycogen
Lipids Steroids
Proteins Globular (functional)
Nucleic acids DNA
Simple sugars (Glucose and Fructose) Monosaccharide
When two monosaccharides are joined together in synthesis reaction Disaccharide
Combinations of many monosaccharides (Glycogen and Cellulose) Polysaccharide
When a macromolecule is formed out of a carbohydrate attached to a protein Glycoprotein
Process of building molecules needed for cellular functioning Anabolism
Decomposition of nutrients Catabolism
Used for energy and stored in fat Lipids
4 classes of Lipids: Triglycerides, Steroids, Phospholipids, Prostaglandins
Another name for triglycerides or fats Neutral fats
All bonds in the hydrocarbon chain are single bonds Saturated fatty acids
When there are some double bonds between the carbon and hydrogen atoms Unsaturated fatty acids
Macromolecule composed of proteins and lipids Lipoprotein
When triglycerides are decomposed Hydrolysis
Make up the cell membrane; have a glycerol backbone; have a lipids bilayer when placed in water; hydrophillic heads are facing water and hydrophobic tails line up with one another Phospholipids
Take form of four interlocking hydrocarbon rings; Hydrophobic; Examples include Cholesterol and Cortisol Steroids
Lipids formed from a 20 carbon fatty acid and ring structure Eicosanoids
Eicosanoids in inflammation Prostaglandins
Eicosanoids in platelet function Thromboxane
Eicosanoids in bronchoconstruction and increased mucus production; mediate inflammation in the allergic process Leukotriene
Most abundant organic molecules in the body; have widest variety of functions; catalyze the reactions occurring in the body; composed of amino acids Proteins
Stable, rigid, water-insoluble proteins that are used for adding strength to tissues or cells (AKA Fibrous proteins); important in structural framework and physical movement (Examples include collagen, keratine, actin, and myosin) Structural proteins
Function in chemical reactions, transport of molecules, regulation of metabolism, and immune system; include hormones, antibodies, protein-based hormones, and enzymes Functional proteins
Proteins that catalyze or speed up chemical reactions (will end in -ase) Enzymes
The substance that the enzyme acts upon Substrates
Largest molecule of the body; Information needed to produce proteins is based on order of the nucleotides in DNA and RNA Nucleic acids
2 classes of nucleic acids DNA and RNA
Exists mainly in the nucleus but also in mitochondria; contains all instructions needed by a cell to build proteins; coded in segments called genes DNA
Transfers the instructions out of the nucleus and into the cytoplasm and builds proteins; exists as mRNA, tRNA, and rRNA RNA
The molecular building blocks of nucleic acids; composed of 5 different nucleotides, but all have the same structure; are composed of a 5-carbon pentose sugar; named for their nitrogen base Nucleotides
5 different types of nucleotides Adenine, Guanine, Thymine, Cytosine, and Uracil
Sugar in DNA Deoxyribose
Sugar in RNA Ribose
Long chains of genes combined with proteins Chromosomes
Consists of 2 parallel strands of nucleotides adenine, thymine, cytosine, and guanine; connected by hydrogen bonds between specific pairings of nucleotides; once bound, these strands twist around one another to form a double helix DNA
Consists of only one strand of nucleotides; does not have thymine but instead has uracil; exists in 3 forms: tRNA, mRNA, and rRNA RNA
Transfer RNA; translates mRNA into a protein tRNA
Messenger RNA; carries information out of the nucleus mRNA
Ribosomal RNA; creates the proteins needed by the body rRNA
Carries energy ATP
Basic units of living things; can exist as a single, free-living plant or animal, or can combine to form elaborate and complex organisms Cells
"Before nucleus"; cells without nucleus were thought to have developed first; Has DNA but not in a separate compartment Prokaryotes
"True nucleus"; developed later and are found in all multicellular organisms; has a distinct nucleus surrounded by a protective "nuclear envelope" Eukaryotes
Size of most cells is restricted to 10-30 um in diameter because of a relationship between...? Surface area and volume of a cell
Also known as plasma membrane; separates cell from environment; flexible, elastic barrier between inner cytoplasm & outer environment; Contains infoldings & outpouchings that provide extra surface area; capable of self repair Cell membrane
Everything inside the cell memebrane but outside the nucleus Cytoplasm
Contains the genetic material of a cell Nucleus
Composed of 2 layers of phospholipids; hydrophillic heads on outside; hydrophobic tails face each other; most lipid soluble molecules easily pass through membrane; water-soluble molecules do not readily pass through Lipid bilayer
Proteins suspended in bilayer and move easily throughout membrane to create a constantly changing pattern Fluid mosaic
Proteins that occur within the bilayer; may span the entire width of the membrane and create channels through with other molecules can pass. Integral proteins
Channels that permit only certain molecules in or out of the cell Selective
Channels that allow the passage of molecules freely Pores
Type of globular protein which can be bound to the inside or outside surfaces of the cell membrane; sometimes act as enzymes; may be involved in changing the cell's shape (muscle contraction) Peripheral proteins
Coating on the cell surface of some cells made of glycoprotein and glyolipids; unique to each cell- provides markers for recognition & for interactions Glycocalyx
Sticky glycoproteins that cover cell surface; helps cells move past one another & signaling; signal circulating cells like WBCs to areas of inflammation or infection Cell adhesion molecules
Integral proteins & glycoproteins that act as binding sites on the cell surface; involved with signaling as well. Membrane receptors
Occur in large numbers on the exposed surface of some cells; shorter than flagella and move synchronously to create waves motion for propulsion Cilia
Significantly longer than cilia and usually occur singularly; attached to individual cells and aid in propulsion Flagella
The inner substance of the cell, excluding the nucleus; components include: cytosol, cytoskeleton, organelles, inclusions Cytoplasm
The fluid of the cell; viscous, semi-transparent liquid composed of dissolved electrolytes, amino acids, & simple sugars; proteins suspended within fluid give it the thick, jellylike consistency Cytosol
3 dimensional frame for the cells; flexible & fibrous & changes in accordance to activities of the cell; gives support & shape to the cell, enables cell to move & provides direction for metabolic activity; anchors organelles Cytoskeleton
Created by: mdupre8705



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