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AP World KM Chap 26

Ghana Earliest of the large, powerful kingdoms in Africa. Controlled and taxed the trade in salt and gold in western Africa.
Mali Replaced Ghana as the premier power in Africa. Continued to control trade through its area in western Africa.
Songhay Came after Ghana and Mali to control the same territory and its trade routes from 1494-1591.
Sunni Ali Emperor of Songhay. Increased the size and wealth of the empire by adding trading cities of Timbuktu and Jenne. Increased size and quality of the military of the Songhay Empire.
Kingdom of Kongo Begins commerical and diplomatic relations with Portugal in 1495. Its king becme a devout Roman Catholic and sought to convert his subjects to Christianity. Becomes part of the Portuguese colony Angola. Negatively affected by trade in slaves.
Queen Nzinga of Ndongo Reigned in the Angolan area from 1623-1663 and resisted Portuguese forces. She wanted to oust Portuguese from her land but was unable to do so. She simply couldn't overcome Portugal's more sophisticated weaponry.
Manioc Food crop that was part of the Colombian exchange. Originally came from the Americas but became a staple of the African diet because the plant thribed in tropical soils not well suited for other crops.
Antonian Movement A Christian religious cult introduced to the Kong by the Portugues. Dona Beatriz, one of its followers, taught that Jesus had been a black man and the the Kongo was the holy land of Christianity.She was sentenced to death for her false teachings.
Triangular Trade Route European products sent to Africa to trade for slaves. Slaves sent from Africa to the Americas to be used in the production of cash crops. Cash Crops, like tobacco, cotton, and sugar were sent to Europe where the process started all over again.
Portuguese Factories Comes from the word "factor" which meant a merchant or trader. Factories were the trading posts in Portuguese Africa that existed to trade European goods for slaves.
Middle Passage The middle leg of the Triangular Trade route that took slaves from Africa to the Americas. Harsh conditions aboard the slavers caused the death of thousands upon thousands of African slaves.
Olaudah Equiano Author of a prominent slave narrative in which he told of his capture, his voyage on the Middle Passage, his life as a slave, and his becoming a free man. One of best African American sources of the time period.
Plantation Societies All plantations grew crops for export. They featured a racial division of labor with small numbers of Europeans or European-Americans supervising the labor performed by African or African American slaves.
Diaspora Any group that has been dispersed outside its traditional homeland, especially involuntarily, such as the Africans during slavery or the Jews after the fall of Jerusalem.
Maroons Slave runaways who gathered in isolated areas to build their own self-governing communities. Usually in Central and South America. Raided plantations for weapons, tools, provisions, and even slaves to provided labor for their new communities.
Creole Languages Slaves combined the dominant European language of the area where the lived with their native African language to produce a new or "creole" tongue.
Call-and-Response West African pattern of singing that slaves used during field work on the plantations. The song leader sang the call line and the workers responded with the next line or repeated the call line.
Haiti Only successful slave revolt occured here in 1793. Slaves revolted against their French masters and then established their own nation, Haiti.