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RR&F emphasized

Rabbits, Rodents and Ferrets

QuestionAnswer
• Ferrets are carnivores
• Ferrets belong to family mustelidae
• Vaccines ferrets need Rabies (Imrab-3 killed), Distemper (Merial recombinant)
• Ferrets are _____ reactions vaccine
• Ferrets are susceptible to ___, ___, ___ which can be treated similar to cats fleas (C. felis), ear mites (Otodected cynotis), mange (demodectic and sarcoptic)
• Why are multiple unmatched transfusions safe in ferrets no blood types
• Abdominal discomfort and nausea in ferrets are often seen clinically with bruxism, pawing at the face, and drooling
• Ferrets are especially prone to this cause of pyloric obstruction FB*
• Ferret gastritis caused by helicobacter mustelae
• Proliferative bowel disease in ferrets is caused by lawsonia intracellularis
• All causes of gastroenterits in ferrets affect young ferrets, have similar CS (green diarrhea, anorexia, weight loss), require surgery and biopsy, have different tx
o Helicobacter tx Triple abx (amoxicillin, metronidazole, pepto)
o IBD tx prednisone
o Proliferative bowel dz tx chloramphenicol
o Eosinophilic gastroenteritis tx Prednisone + Ivermectin
• Epizootic catarrhal enteritis in ferrets is caused by coronavirus of Ferret Infectious Peritonitis
• ECE in ferrets affects adults
• Cardiopulmonary diseases in ferrets valvular dz, HW, DCM and HCM
• Which cardiomyopathy is more common in ferrets DCM
• Viral diseases of ferrets influenza, canine distemper, Aleutian mink disease (Parvo)
• Ferret neoplasia Lymphoma, benign MCT, benign sebaceous epitheliomas, Chordomas, GI adenocarcinoma
• What cause of hind limb atrophy, fever, and pain in ferrets may be elicited by a delayed post-vx reaction disseminated idiopathic myofasciitis
• What are the major endocrine diseases in ferrets hyperadernocorticism, insulinomas, ovarian remnants, hyperestroginism
• Hyperadrenocorticism in ferrets is NOT Cushings*
• Dx and Tx of hyperadrenocorticism in ferrets Dx: ultrasound of adrenas, Tx: Depo Lupron or surgery*
• Severity of hyperestrogenism in ferrets is associated with severity of anemia
• Urogenital diseases of ferrets urolithiasis, renal failure, hydronephrosis, cystitis, TCC
• Most common sx in ferrets exploratory laparotomy
• Complications of adrenal sx in ferrets life-threatening vena cava bleeding nd recurrence of adrenal disease
• Common ferret surgeries explore, adrenal, prostatic cysts, pancreatic, FB removal, splenectomy, liver biopsy, cystotomy, PU, OHE, neuter, anal gland removal, salivary mucocele removal
• In ferret enterotomies, make incision _____ , close _____ longitudinally, transversely
• T/F, pancreatitis is common in ferrets False
• Myomorpha = rats, mice, hamsters, gerbils
• Hystricomorphia = guinea pigs, chinchillas
• Sciurmorpha = squirrels, prairie dogs
• Chromadacryorrhea = red liquid tears (not blood) do to stress, rats
• Chemotherapeutics in rodents require a ___ mg/kg dosage than dogs = higher
• Most important husbandry concern in rodents = good ventilation
• With rodent blood collection, always use ___ = heparin to prevent clotting*
• Very common respiratory disease of rodents treated with doxycycline = Chronic Mycoplasma (Mycoplasma pulmonis)
• Common disease of rodents resulting in pneumonia and sudden death, treated with enro or chloramphenicol = Pasteurella multocida
• A paramyxovirus of young rodents that causes respiratory distress = Sendai virus
• Dental disease of rodents is usually resolved by = clipping affected teeth
• Chronic progressive nephrosis is common in = rats
• Renal amyloidosis is common in = hamsters
• Chronic interstitial nephritis is common in = gerbils
• GI problems in rodents = antibiotic toxicity, AAE*, salmonella, tyzzer’s disease
• What cause tail necrosis in rodents = low humidity and annular constriction
• How do you tx barbering & bite wounds in rodents = remove dominant animals
• What causes pododermatitis in rodents = rough flooring*
• What dermatophytes affect rodents = Trichophyton* and Microsporum
• What external parasites affect rodents = mites, lice
• Rabbits are lagomorphs
• Rabbits have _ upper incisors 4*
• Rabbits secondary incisors are known as peg teeth
• Rabbit teeth exhibit continuous growth
• A concern with rabbit skin very thin, easy to tear
• Rabbits are ____ fermenters and perform ____ hindgut, coprophagy
• Rabbit urine has a ___ pH high (8-9)
• What vessel in the ear can you use for IV injections in rabbits marginal (small)
• The rabbit repro tract is characterized by bicornuate uterus and 2 cervices
• Preferred rabbit diet high quality grass-hay, limit pellets
• What anesthetic drug has no effect in rabbits atropine
• What preventative medication is deadly to rabbits Fipronil *
• How should you never restrain a rabbit and why scruffing it, may break back
• The most important rabbit disease Pasteurellosis*
• Effects of pasteurellosis in rabbits URI (snuffles), Otitis, pleuropneumonia, bacteremia, abcessess, pyometra
• Tx for pasteurellosis in rabbits supportive, abs (enro, chloramphenicol, TMS)
• What may cause torticollis in rabbits Otitis interna, microsporidiosis, baliscaris, toxoplasmosis, trauma, parasitic cysts)
• What causes microsporidiosis in rabbits Encephalitozoon cuniculi*
• What viruses affect rabbits rabies (rarely), herpes simplex 1, poxvirus (myxomatosis, rabbit fibroma, rabbitpox), papillomavirus, calicvirus
• Which rabbit viruses are reportable myxomatosis, calicivirus
• “Trichobezoars” in rabbits may indicate gastric stasis
• Diarrhea is an ____ in rabbits emergency
• Causes of rabbit diarrhea mucoid enteritis (young, diet related), infectious, abx associated dysbiosis
• What abx should you NEVER use in rabbits clindamycin, lincomycin, ampicillin, amoxicillin, erythromycin*
• What UG dz affect rabbits calculi (calcium carbonate), adenocarcinoma
• What parasites affect rabbits cuterebra, fleas, psoroptes cuniculu (ear mites), cheyletiella parasitovorx (rabbit fur mite), noedres cati
• What is rabbit syphilis treponema paraluiscuniculi, “venereal spirochetosis” (tx: penicillin)
• Respiratory distress in rats likely due to mycoplasma*, cilia-associated respiratory bacillus (CAR), streptococcus pneumonia, corynebacterium
• Sialodacryoadenitis virus is rat mumps, conjunctivitis, corneal ulcers, swelling
• Red d/c from eyes and nose of rats is often chromodacryorrhea*
• Rat neoplasia most important mammary gland fibroadenomas
• Viral disease of young mice that causes respiratory distress sendai virus*
• 2 causes of diarrhea in mice citrobacter freundii and coronavirus
• What UG problem causes self-mutilation in mice urethral obstruction
• Mouse neoplasia (3) mammary gland adenocarcinomas, hepatic carcinomas, lymphcytic leukemia
• Pet hamster species = Syrian hamster
• Cause of pneumonia and acute death in hamsters = Pasteurella multocida*
• Hamster virus that can cause human birth defects = Lymphocytic choriomeningits (LCM)
• GI problems in hamsters = Lawsonia intracellularis, AAE**
• Common kidney problem in hamsters = amyloidosis*
• Cardiac problems in hamsters = aterial thrombosis, cardiomyopathy
• Endocrine problem in hamsters = Cushings
• Hamster neoplasia = adrenal gland adenomas, LSA and trichoepitheliomas, SCC
• Pet gerbil species Mongolian
• Cause of diarrhea in gerbils Tyzzer’s disease (clostridium piliforme)*
• Treatment of Tyzzer’s disease penicillin and tetracycline
• Cause of facial dermatitis in gerbils Staph, chromodacryorrhea*
• Causes of swollen inflamed glands in gerbils scent gland abscess or carcinoma
• T/F gerbils have epileptic-like seizures TRUE
• How do you treat tail slip amputation
• Gerbils get periodontal disease from rat block diets
• Gerbil neoplasia Ovarian granulosa tumors, SCC, melanoma, LSA
• GPs get ____ due to ____ deficiency Scurvy, Vitamin C*
• Respiratory disease due to bordetella, chlamdydia, allergies
• GI disease due to clostridium, coronavirus, bloat
• UG disease cystitis, uroliths
• Diseases associated with pregnancy eclampsia, ketosis, dystocia
• GP mange Trixacarus cavaie*
• What GP neoplasia is caused by a retrovirus LSA
• Chinchillas can suffer from ___, especially in FL heat stroke*
• Pneumonia in chinchillas can be caused by klebsiella, strep
• Dermatophytosis of chinchillas due to Trichophyton*, Microsporum
• Treat trichophyton with itraconazole, lyme dip
• Paraphimosis post-copulatory accumulation of fur around penis
• Most common etiology association with bite wound abscess in Chinchillas Strep or Staph
• What is slobbers genetic disease, CS: hypersalivation, tx: trim teeth
• GI problems of chinchillas constipation, C. perfinges, protozoal enteritis
• 2 neuro issues in chinchillas Listeria, visceral larval migrans (balisacaris)*
• A degu with PU/PD, cataract and weight loss, likely dx Diabetes
• Degu that ADR, obesity, and diabetes may also have hepatic lipidosis
• Wire cages and Staph aureas may cause ___ in degus pododermatitis*
• Degu neoplasia hepatocellular carcinomas, bronchioalveolar carcinomas
• Husbandy problems of prairie dogs obesity, heart disease, pododermatitis, incisor malocclusion
• Diseases of prairie dogs alopecia, plague (Yersinia pestis)*, odontomas, DCM*
• Biggest concern when making laparotomy incision don’t hit cecum*
• Why are ovaries hard to find lots of fat
• Rabbit anatomical differences in repro tract long infundibulum, complex vasculature
• Where should you clamp the uterus 1. Each uterus separately (leave cervices), 2. Right below cervices (may have urinary back up), 3. Far below cervices (risk of ligating ureters)
• Biggest issue with castrations separating peritoneum (directly over testicle) from skin
• Pyometra in rabbits often due to pasteurella
• Pododermatitis needs bandaging
• Tibial fractures can be treated surgically (ortho) or by amputation
• Rat flea/rodent cycle disease that caused black death plague (Yersinia pestis)*
• 3 types of typhus Epidemic (Rickettsia prowazakii), Scrub (Orienta), Murine (Rickettsia typhi)
• Hemorrhagic diseases S. American hemorrhagic fever, Korean hemorrhagic fever, Hantavirus (Bunyavirus)
• Rodents serve as amplifiers in these disease RMSF, lyme, hepatits E (calici), arenaviruses (hemorrhagic dz)
• Food/water borne diseases salmonella, yersinoisis, crpto, giardia
• Most zoonotic diseases are a concern with ___ rodents PEST or WILD
• Baliscaris is NOT zoonotic, T/F TRUE
• Rodent urine may cause this dz that causes renal failure Lepto
• Rabbit disease causing liver/renal failure Tularemia
• ___ may cause birth defects in humans LCM*
• Rodent and ferret bites could cause Rabies
• E. caniculi can cause ___ pneumonia
• What derm conditions are zoonotic dermatophytosis, mites, bite/scratch wounds (pasteurella)
• What disease affects lab vets allergies
• 2 pox viruses that are zoonotic monkeypox and cowpox
• What disease are ferrets commonly used for human studies (therefore it’s zoonotic Influenza*
• Sugar gliders are not ____, do not ____ rodents, trim their teeth*
• Husbandry problems of sugar gliders metabolic bone dz, obesity, trauma, alopecia, self-mutilation
• Diseases of sugar gliders salmonella, lymphoma, avian tuberculosis?
• What hedgehogs do we keep as pets African
• What is important to know about male porcupines they have a tubular penis (don’t confuse with testicle)
• Hedgehogs are insectivores
• What strange behavior do hedgehogs exhibit “anting”
• Common hedgehog husbandry problems Met. Bone dz, trauma, obesity, overgrown nails
• What time of mange affects hedgehogs caparina (chorioptic)
• What demyelinating paralysis affects hedgehogs wobbly hedgehog syndrome
• Most common cause of epiphora in rabbits Upper 2ndary premolar root problem
• What preferred analgesics are used in rabbits Buprenorphine* and tramadol
• What is the most common cause of oral trauma in rabbits dental spurs
• Incisor malocclusion in rabbits is caused by inherited mandibular prognathism, fracture, secondary to cheek teeth overgrowth
• What is used as elevators in dental extractions of rabbits 18g needle
• Molar malocclusion in rabbits is caused by low fiber diet, molar overgrowth, periodontal infection, malnutrition, geriatric
• What actual etiologies are responsible for dental dz in rabbits anaerobes, strep
• Antibiotics are not effective without ___ in treating ____ surgery, oral abscesses
• What are the big differences btw rabbits and rodent teeth rabbits have peg teeth, rodents have more angled teeth and a narrower dental arcade
• What species get caries other than primates chinchillas
• What dental issues do chinchillas, GPs, and degus have quidding, ptyalism, slobbers
• Prairie dogs suffer from elodontomas*
• Mice/rats/etc only have continuously growing ___ incisors
• Mice/rats have ____ common dental disease than rabbits less
• Hedgehogs and Sugar gliders are not ____ so don’t have ___ teeth rodents, elodont*
Created by: Sara2420