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Path Respiratory

Pathology Lectures 13-14

Upper Respiratory System function:*** Filtering of inhaled debris Warming of air Removal of inhaled particles (mucociliary escalator)
What is the target of most viruses?*** mucociliary escalator
What is the mucociliary escalator? ciliated epithelium with goblet cells that together trap and remove foreign particles
What is a defect of the microtubules causing chronic recurrent pneumonia, infertility, and transposition of organ?*** Ciliary dyskinesia (immotile cilia syndrome)
What is characterized by too much soft tisssue and not enough bone scaffolding in the palate causing secondary laryngeal edema?*** Brachycephalic airway syndrome
What anomaly of the Upper respiratory system is characterized by a flattening, is observed on rads, and affects miniature dog breeds? tracheal collpase
Describe primary nasal neoplasms: Epithelial and mesenchymal Dolicocephalic breeds** Mostly benign CS and pathology can be similar to infectious rhinitis*
What metastatic neoplasm is seen in the nasal cavity of cats? LSA
What non-neoplastic cause of nasal d/c, sneeze/stertor, gagging, and phonatin change is seen in cats? Polyps
What neoplasm is light tan and spongy and seen in the nasal cavity of dogs? Fibrosarcoma
What is a differential for nasal cavity obstruction in dogs? fungal -- aspergillosis
What is a common cause of upper respiratory disease in cats characterized by rhinotracheitis?** Feline Herpesvirus 1 (latent infections common)
What cells does herpesvirus infect?* epithelial cells of the respiratory tract
What feline virus causes URT but is characterized by oral and nasal ulceration and more commonly causes necrotizing bronchiolitis and bronchointerstitial pneumonia? Feline Calicivirus
What type of pneumonia does calici cause? bronchointerstitial
What is the prognosis for managing a cat with with chronic rhinitis/sinusitis?** guarded for a complete cure
What is unique about the canine respiratory disease complex?* None of the agents alone seem to cause significant disease
What viruses and bacteria are causes of kennel cough?* Canine parainfluenza virus, Canine adenovirus type 2, Bordetella bronchiseptica
Describe parainfluenza: paramyxovirus minimal! rhinitis tracheitis, bronchitis, and intrstitial pneumonia replicate in epithelial cells and macs concurrent infections w/ distemper and adenovirus
Canine Adenovirus 2 is epitheliotropic for ____________ and viral replication produces a ____________ 1. bronchiolar epithelium 2. severe necrotizing and proliferative bronchitis and bronchiolitis
What is the common pathogenesis for many respiratory viruses?**** Disrupts defense mechanisms and Increases susceptibility to secondary infection (bacteria, fungus, etc)
What is the result of viral infection of epithelial cells?* loss of ciliated cells, decreased mucous layer, and loss of epithelial lining ----> disrupts defense mechanism
What is the result of viral infection in macrophages? alters antigen presentation of macrophages and cytokine release --> disrupts defense mechanism
Differentials for a dog with unilateral nasal discharge: FB, tooth root abscess, neoplasia, fungal
Differentials for dry chronic cough in 7 year old dog: infectious, neoplasia, parasites
What endocrine disease may cause mineralization of canine lungs? Cushings
These 2 causes _____ and _____ of chronic ______ may lead to mineralization of the lungs Uremia and Hypervitaminosis D hypercalcemia
What is a cause of exogenous lipid pneumonia in cats? hairball medication aspirated
What is senile ossification an incidental finding of ectopic boen formation in the lungs of old dogs
Primary epithelial neoplasms in the lung of: conduction system = transitional system = exchange system = 1. bronchogenic carcinoma 2. bronchiolar carcinoma 3. alveolar carcinoma
What is the most common type of lung neoplasm? bronchioaveolar carcinoma
Morphology of primary lung tumors: single nodules, white-grey, smooth to umbilicated, invasive and expansive
Primary mesenchymal tumors of the lungs (4): osteosarcoma, chondrosarcoma, granular cell tumor, undifferentiated sarcoma
metastatic neoplasms of the lung (3) osteosarcoma, hemagiosarcoma, mammary gland carcinoma other blood borne metastases
In primary lung adenocarcinoma in cats where will you see metastasis? the digits
Ddx for multiple nodules that are sessile, fluctuant, random, and dark in color on the lungs (2) hemangiosarcoma, melanoma
Feline _____ is a diagnosis of exclusion characterized by periodic cough and dyspnea asthma
What type of hypersensitivity reaction is feline asthma 1
Distemper virus is a syngergistic concurrent infection with ___________*** CPiV, CAV2, and bordetella
URIs in dogs may include symptoms: rhinitis, conjunctivitis, pharyngitis, tracheits, bronchitis
Lower respiratory tract lesions: bronchits, bronciolitis, pneumonia
Non-respiratory lesions associated with disteper** lymphoid atrophy, encephalomyelitis, hyperkeratosis of the skin, and enamel hypoplasia
Ag detection of viruses can be taken from what 3 tissues** lung, stomach, urinary bladder
Histopath diagnoses of viruses should come from what 4 tissues: lung, bronchus, trachea, urinary bladder
What will lungs look like following distemper infection: exudate, necrosis, rib impressions, diffuse
Where is bronchopneumonia distributed? cranial ventral
Canine herpesvirus is usually a ____________ resulting in _________________ generalized disease multifocal hemorrhage and necrosis
4 characteristics of bronchopneumonia**** inhalation, cranioventral, suppurative, granulomatous w/ higher bacteria
Bordetella associated pneumonia is _____________________**** usually associated with prior or concurrent viral infection
What bacterial spp can look like bordetella grossly? mycoplasma
Mycotic pneumonia is characterized as:**** multifocal, granulomatous, inhales or hematogenous, and affects tracheobronchial LNs
Created by: Sara2420



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