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Digestive system1250

vet 1250

What are the four main parts of the digestive system? gut, digestive tract, alimentary canal, GI tract
What are the six main parts of the GI tract? Mouth, esophagus, stomach/rumen, small intestine, large intestine, anus
What are the five accessory structures of the digestive system? teeth, tongue, salivary glands, liver, pancreas
What are the five functions of the digestive tract? 1. Prehension 2. Mastication 3. Chemical digestion 4. Absorption 5. Elimination
plant eating animals are herbivores
meat eating animals are carnivores
animals that eat meat and plant material are omnivores
these animals have simple single stomachs monogastric
these animals have multiple mixing and fermentation compartments in addition to the stomach ruminants
the digestive tract is made up of how many layers 4
the lining of the Gi tract that is made up of epithelium and loose connective tissue mucosa layer
dense connective tissue that lines the digestive tract and may contain glands submucosa layer
the layer of the digestive tract that is located outside the submucosa muscle layer
the outermost layer of the digestive tract that is thin tough connective tissue serosa layer
sheets of connective tissue that contains blood and lymph vessels and nerves that supply the GI tract Messentery
this tissue lines the mouth, pharynx, esophagus, and anus stratified squamous epithelium
This tissue runs from the junction of the esophagus and stomach through the intestines to junction of rectum and anus simple columnar epithelium
this has voluntary control of the mouth, pharynx, the cranial part of the esophagus, and the external anal sphincter, also allows chewing and swallowing skeletal muscle
This tissue covers the wall of the esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, and internal sphincter; primarily arranged in circular and longitudinal layers smooth muscle
circular muscle contractions with wavelike movement along the tract that propel digestive tract contents along the tube ahead peristalsis
periodic circular muscle contractions that occur in different adjacent sites that mix contents and allow movement through the tract segmental contractions
Four main parts of the mouth/oral cavity Lips, roof(hard and soft palate) teeth, tongue
this gland produces saliva, comes in 3 pairs with ducts that carry the saliva to the oral cavity salivary glands
the salivary gland that is ventral to the ear canals parotid
the salivary gland ventral to the parotid glands at the caudal angle of the mandible mandibular
salivary gland medial to the shafts of the mandible located just under the base of the tongue sublingual
physically breaking down food into smaller pieces mastication
these teeth are contained in the maxilla and the incisive bone upper arcade
these teeth are contained in the mandible lower arcade
inner surface of the lower arcade of teeth lingual
inner surface of the upper arcade palatal
outer surface of the upper and lower arcade at the front of the mouth labial
outer surface of the teeth more caudal in the mouth buccal
covers the crown of the tooth, hardest toughest tissue in the body enamel
surrounds and protects the tooth pulp dentin
center of the tooth where blood and nerve supply enter at the apex of the tooth root pulp
epithelial tissue that composes the gums around the teeth gingiva
hard connective tissue, covers the root, helps fasten the tooth securely in its body socket cementum
grasping teeth that are most rostral of the upper and lower arcade incisors
tearing teeth, located at the corners of the incisors, longer than the other teeth with pointed tips canines
cutting teeth, rostral cheek teeth, sharp points and surfaces in carnivores premolars
grinding teeth, caudal cheek teeth, larger, flatter occlusal surfaces molars
canine adult dental formula I 3/3 C 1/1 P 4/4 M 2/3
feline adult dental formula I 3/3 C 1/1 P 3/2 M 1/1
Bovine adult dental formula I 0/3 C 0/1 P 3/3 M 3/3
Equine adult dental formula I 3/3 C 1/1 P 3-4/3 M 3/3
Porcine adult dental formula I 3/3 C 1/1 P 4/4 M 3/3
breaks down food into smaller particle that increase the surface area available for enzymatic exposure mastication(mechanical digestion)
saliva added to food as it is chewed, moistens, softens, and shapes into a form that is readily swallowed chemical digestion
when the stomach is empty the ph is 1
enzyme in saliva of omnivores that breaks down amylose(sugar component of startch) Amylase
enzyme that digests lipids, may be found in the saliva of some young animals while they are nursing Lipase
found in saliva of cattle, neutralize acids normally formed in the rumen sodium bicarbonate and phosphate buffers
controls most of the glands in the digestive system autonomic nervous system
stimulates increase in salivation parasympathetic nervous system
stimulation decreases salivation, fear or PNS inhibitors like atropine produce dry mouth sympathetic nervous system
transports material from pharynx to stomach esophagus
enters the stomach at an angle in the cardia region esophagus
surrounded by the cardiac sphincter muscle esophagus
five main areas of the monogastric stomach cardia, fundus, body, pyloric antrum, pyloris
three major parts of the monogastric stomach Cardia, fundus, body
opening from the esophagus cardia
distensible blind pound that expands more as food is swallowed, contains many glands fundus
distensible middle section, contains many glands body
these glands contain parietal cells, chief cells, and mucous cells gastric glands
parietal cells produce hydrochloric acid
chief cells produce the enzyme pepsin
mucous cells product protective mucous
grinds up and swallowed food, regulates hydrochloric acid pyloric antrum
glands in the pyloric antrum contain G cells that secrete gastrin
the muscular sphincter that regulates movement of chyme from the stomach to the duodenum, prevents back flow of duodenal contens into the stomach pylorus
this must combine with vitamin b12 in order for this vitamin to be absorbed into the small intestine intrinsic factor
pepsinogen is secreted by chief cells and is a precursor for the enzyme pepsin
breaks proteins into chains of amino acids pepsin
secreted from the glands in submucosa intrinsic factor
gastin, histamine, and acetylcholine are secreted by parietal cells in order to regulate H+ and Cl-
complex of substances that provide a protective coating for the stomach that is secreted continually mucus
produced by goblet cells in gastric glands mucins
ions that alkalinizes the mucosa bicarbonate
inhibit gastrin release, stimulate bicarbonate production, enhance blood flow to the stomach, stabilize lysosomes with gastric cells, regulate the activity of macrophages and mast cells Prostaglandins(PG's)
this tissue is located in the stomach wall responds to hormones, peptides, and nervous system control smooth muscle
stimulation causes fundus to relax and increase contraction in antrum PNS
stimulation can cause a decrease in motility - gastric atony SNS
_____ and ____ relax with swallowing of food fundus and body
_____ contracts the stomach to help mix food body
increase production of HCl, inhibits muscle activity of the fundus gastrin
distention of the intestines of increase activity in the duodenum, inhibits stomach contraction, delays gastric emptying enterogastic reflex
release from duodenum in response to excess stomach acid in small intestine, can cause fundus to relax, can inhibit peristalsis of the body and antrum secretin
released in response to large amounts of fats or proteins in the duodenum, decreases contrations of the antrum, body, and fundus cholecystokinin(CCK)
one true stomach, three forestomachs, swallow food > regurgitate it to chew some more then swallow again Ruminants( rumination)
ruminant stomach order of digestion reticulum, rumen, omasum, abomasum
traps heavy non food items, does some digestion and absorption reticulum
fermentation vat rumen
mechanical digestion of food omasum
enzymatic digestion of food, true stomach abomasum
smallest most cranial stomach, honeycomb surface reticulum
large fermentative vat, papillae surface rumen
membranous leaves appearance omasum
glandular appearance abomasum
this separates the reticulum and rumen ruminoreticular fold
the rate and strength of contraction of the rumen is determined by the rumen ph
rumen bacteria use their surface cellulase enzyme to turn cellulose into simple carbohydrates/sugars
rumen bacteria use their proteases to breakdown protein
carbohydrates and peptides absorbed by microbes and converted to volatile fatty acids(VFA's)
VFA's are converted into glucose, adipose tissue, milk fat and other components
first short segment of the small intestine that leaves the stomach duodenum
longest portion of the small intestine jejunum
portion of the small intestine that is separated by the ileocecal sphincter that regulates movement from the small intestine into the colon of cecum Ileum
the illeocecal spincter is close to this organ appendix
many fold of villi that contain thousands of microvilli mucosa
digestive enzymes and carrier molecules embedded in cell membrane microvilli
produce mucus and help protect the intestinal mucosa goblet cells
independent of the parasympathetic nervous system these hormones may stimulate intestinal motility Cholecystokinin and prostaglandins
on the basis of the gut ________ must be broken down into _______ b4 cells can break them down polymers; monomers
three major components of the large intestine cecum, colon, rectum
recover fluid and electrolytes, store feces primary functions of large intestine
have a poorly developed cecum with a simple tubular colon carnivores
very large colon and cecum also havve a hind gut herbivores
fermentation site hindgut
these animals have hindgut digestion equine, quinea pigs, rats, and rabbits
terminal portion of large intestine, nervous system control of motility, numerous mucus-secreting glands, sensory receptors detect stretching a stimulate defecation response rectum
internal and external muscular sphincters, stretch receptors cause relaxation and mucosal receptors increase the need for defecation anus
under autonomic control internal sphincter
under voluntary control external sphincter
produces bile, metabolizes drugs/toxins, produces proteins for clotting factors(albumin) stores glucose as glycogen, metabolizes fat into energy, stores vitamins liver
liver secretions are secreted into bile ducts > hepatic duct then stored in the gallbladder
removes toxins and infections agents that enter the body through the GI tract liver
stores or metabolizes nutrients absorbed from the GI tract Liver
located by the duodenum, considered exocrine and endocrine gland pancreas
produces proteases trypsin, chymotrypsin, amylase, and lipase pancreas (exocrine function)
secretes bicarbonate into the duodenum to neutralize and maintain the ph for proper enzyme function pancreas
produces insulin and glucagon to help regulate blood glucose levels pancreas (endocrine function)
causes glucose, amino acids, and fatty acids in the blood stream to be absorbed and used for energy beta cells(insulin)
increases glucose levels, stimulates liver cells to convert glycogen to glucose(gluconeogenesis Alpha cells(glucagon)
inhibits the secretion of insulin, glucagon, and GH also diminishes the activity of the GI tract delta cells(somatostatin)
starch is converted into disaccharides in the lumen of the duodenum by the pancreatic enzyme amalyase
gastic pepsin breaks apart some protein chains into smaller _____ polypeptides
the bile acid lipid component absorbed through microvilli Micelles
two types of muscle make up the wall of the digestive tube: skeletal muscle and smooth muscle
two types of epithelium line the digestive tube: stratified squamous epithelium and simple colmnar epithelium
contraction of the ________ muscles of the digestive tract narrows that segment of the tube circular
contration of the ___________ muscle fibers shortens the segment of the tube longitudinal
breaks in the underlying mucosa (the epithelium) are called erosions
deep erosions of the stomach are called gastric ulcers
inflammation of the stomach is called gastritis
the _____ is the immediately surrounding the opening from the esophagus to the stomach cardia
when more acetycholine from the PNS is release at the G cells, gastrin is released from the G cells of the pyloric antrum causing: relaxation of the fundus and simultaneous production of increased amounts of hydrochloric acid
these medications can cause a decreased mucous layer with increased acidity, potentially causing gastritis NSAID
enzymes produced by the digestive glands in monogastric animlas cannot digest the _____ and_____ that make up the cell wall of plants cellulose; pectin
the process by with fat globules must be broken down into smaller pieces emulsification and micelle formation
the beta cells in the pancreas are also known as pancreatic islets; islets of langerhans
the process of glycogen being broken down by the liver glycogenolysis
Created by: chop



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