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QuestionAnswer
Pathogen or saprophyte? -Leptospira interrogans; -Leptospira biflexa L. interrogans: pathogen; L. biflexa: saprophyte
Leptospira: list 4 characteristics of host-adapted serovars milder disease - mild, sporadic infections; long-term colonization of urogenital tract; venereal transmission; low-titer, long-lasting immune response (persistent)
Leptospira: list 3 characteristics of non-adapted serovars severe infections; brief carrier state; high-titer immune response
Leptospira: what is the maintenance host/reservoir for the serovar icterohaemorrhagiae? rodents
Leptospira: what is the maintenance host/reservoir for the serovar grippotyphosa? rodents
Leptospira: what is the maintenance host/reservoir for the serovar canicola? dogs
Leptospira: what is the maintenance host/reservoir for the serovar bratislava? swine
Leptospira: what is the maintenance host/reservoir for the serovar pomona? cattle, swine
Leptospira: what is the maintenance host/reservoir for the serovar hardjo? cattle
leptospira can OR cannot penetrate intact skin? cannot; must have broken skin
in canine leptospirosis, which serovars were used in "old" vs "new" vaccines? old: icterohaemorrhagiae, canicola; new: grippotyphosa, pomona
which serovar causes acute bovine leptospirosis? pomona; causes abortion storms
which serovar causes subacute bovine leptospirosis? hardjo; causes abortion/stillborn/weak calves, but not in a storm
discuss leptospira zoonosis all serovars are potential human pathogens; cause flu-like symptoms
Leptospira: which serovars infect horses? pomona, others; abortion, and recurrent uveitis (more common) ensues
Leptospira: which serovars infect dogs grippotyphosa, icterohaemorrhagiae, canicola, pomona; hepatic/renal disease ensues
Leptospira: which serovars infect cattle? pomona, hardjo; abortion ensues
most common animal affected by Borrelia burgdorferi (lyme disease)? dogs > horses > cattle > cats
what is special about vaccine for borrelia in dogs? works in tick, not the dog; blocks transmission; immunity is short-lived; includes bacterin - both OspA & OspC, but most dogs don't respond to OspC - dogs only make Ab to OspA OR can be recombinant OspA only
Lyme disease symptoms most are asymptomatic; transient fever, anorexia, arthritis (slowly progressive); rarely: renal disease, heart disease, neurologic signs
B. Burgdorferi zoonosis? yes; animal-> human transmission; indirect through a tick vector but NOT dog -> human
Why is C6 antibody useful in diagnostics for B. burgdorferi? only appear in exposed animals; no Ab's in response to vaccination; will be detected before clinical symptoms appear
which bacterium causes gas bubbles in infected tissue? clostridium; also cause pitting edema
C. novyi type D used to be named what? C. haemolyticum
why does Clostridium botulinum have no endotoxins? it is not gram -
what species are most susceptible to C. tetani/ man, horses > ruminants > pigs > dogs, cats
predisposing features for Fusobacterium necrophorum in cattle? lead to liver abscesses; grain overload, lactic acidosis, rumenitis -> Fusobacterium invades rumen wall -> reaches liver via portal vein
what type of envirtonment does dichelobacter like? warm, wet, muddy conditions
mycoplasma: are large-colony type or small-colony type more virulent small-colony type ar emore virulent
characterize the bovine mastitis caused by mycoplasma bovis can be acute or chronic; contagious!
how is mycoplasma spread in poultry? aerosol (horizontal); hatching egg (vertical)
characteristics of icteroanemia/eperythrozoonosis? Mycoplasma suis - porcine infection; acute hemolytic anemia, decreased conception, weak neonates, necrosis of extremities; transmitted by biting arthropods
Nomenclature change: what is the old name of Ehrlichia ruminantium? cowdria ruminantium
Nomenclature change: what is the old name of anaplasma phagocytophilum? ehrlichia phagocytophila, ehrlichia equi
Nomenclature change: what is the old name of anaplasma platys? ehrlichia platys
Nomenclature change: what is the old name of neorickettsia risticii? ehrlichia risticii
Nomenclature change: what is the old name of coxiella burnetii? rickettsia burnetti
rocky mountain spotted fever clinical sympotoms fever, vomiting, diarrhea, thrombosis, small hemorrhages (petechiae), lymph node enlargement, joint/muscle tenderness
ehrlichia canis, ewingii: acute vs subclinical vs chronic phases? acute: fever, LN enlargement; subclinical: asymptomatic, elimination of bacterium; chronic: vasculitis, thrombocytopenia (immune-mediated?), hemorrhage
Ehrlichia zoonosis? E. ewingii = human granulocytic ehrliciosis; E. canis = rare; E. chaffeensis = human monocytic ehrlichiosis, similar to E. canis
what animals/cells are attacked by anaplasma marginale? cattle, erythrocytes
what animals/cells are attacked by anaplasma phagocytophilum? ruminants, horses, dogs, human; granulocytes
what animals/cells are attacked by anaplasma platys? dogs, platelets
4 stages of anaplasma marginale? incubation -> development -> convalescent -> carrier
neorickettsia: reservoir? intermediate host? R: flukes (trematodes); IH: snails, fish (salmon)
Coxiella burnetti (Q fever) zoonosis occupational disease: farmers, veterinarians, abbatoir workers; flu-like symptoms
C. burnetti - biosecurity? has been weaponized; efficient aerosol transmission; survives in environment
Q fever in animals? most infections are asymptomatic or latent; sporadic abortions
all chlamydophila used to be called what? chlamydia psittaci
respiratory symptoms in M. gallisepticum & C. psittaci? M: coughing, nasal discharge, air sacculitis; C: oculonasal discharge, respiratory distress, air sacculitis (also causes loss of condition systemically & diarrhea)
Chlamydophila psittaci: shedding? may occur sporadically over long periods of time; stress may precipitate disease/shedding
Chlamydophila psittaci: zoonosis? reportable; causes Psittacosis - flu-like, pneumonia; from pet birds & poultry; at risk - bird owners, pet shop employees, veterinarians, poultry workers
chlamydophilia felis: persistence disease resolves without treatment, but organisms may persist; shedding of agent may be prolongs, stress may lead to clinical relapse
chlamydophilia felis: zoonosis? mild conjunctivitis; rare
chlamydophilia abortus & abortions sporadic or abortion storms, depending on flock immunity; organism may remain latent until late pregnancy
chlamydophilia abortus: zoonosis? reports of clamydial abortion following exposure to aborting sheep; at risk: abattoir workers, vaccine manufacturing workers, laboratory scientists
fungi are more closely related to plants or animals? animals
ways to classify fungi? mold/yeast/fungi-like mold (multicell, filamentous/fuzzy)/yeast (single cell, reproduce by budding)/ fungal-like (resemble fungi)
way to classify fungy? disease cutaneous/SubQ / systemic / opportunistic / fungal-like
microsporum canis #1 dermatophyte at TVMDL; wide host range (mostly cat/dog); cat - primary reservoir, often asymptomatic; only animal dermatophyte that is wood's light +
microsporum gypseum #2 dermatophyte at TVMDL; wide host range (dog, cat, horse); reservoir: soil
trichophyton mentagrophytes #3 most common dermatophyte at TVMDL; wide host range (cat, dog, cattle); reservoir: rodent
sporothrix schenckii: transmission? puncture wounds from thorns, bites, etc
sporotrichosis: zoonotic? yes; direct contact with lesions/contaminated bandages; especially from cats; cats shed fungus in exudates, feces; can be isolated from clinically normal cats
characteristics of systemic fungi (5) agents of 'deep mycoses'; thermally dimorphic; infection by inhalation; host factors important in disease course; generally noncontagious (most infections from the environment)
3 varieties of H. capsulatum? Which is in the US? H. capsulatum farciminosum (N Africa, Europe, India, Russia); H. capsulatum duboisii (Africa); H. capsulatum capsulatum (US)
H. capsulatum capsulatum - reservoir & transmission? world-wide; mississippi & ohio river valleys; strongly associated with bird & bat droppings; transmitted by inhalation
Histoplasmosis: canine infection most susceptible species; young outdoor sporting breeds; 3 forms - subclinical (most common), pulmonary, disseminate (GI, skin, lymphatics, CNS, BM, eyes, liver, spleen)
Histoplasmosis: feline infection rare, progressive, debilitating (weight loss, lethargy, fever); 44% of cats in endemic areas may harbor yeast in tissues
Histoplasmosis: public health most common human pulmonary mycosis; disseminated disease (impairment of host immunity, elderly/immunocompromised, dormancy in macrophages & reactivation); disease in healthy indiv: overwhelming inoculum of organisms; interspp. transmission unlikely
Blastomycosis: canine infection dog/human - natural host; 25% infections are fatal; clinical forms-systemic/disseminated or cutaneous; clinical signs depend on organ affected (dyspnea, anorexia, depression, lameness, lymphadenopathy, skin lesions)
Blastomycosis: public health zoonotic transmission uncommon - percutaneous infection (bite from a dog), vets performing necropsies; humans - natural host; low prevalence in endemic areas; pneumonia & weight loss most common symptoms
Coccidioidomycosis: importance? most virulent fungal pathogen; fewer than 10 arthroconidia can cause infection; CDC/APHIS select agent status
coccidioidomycosis: 2 species Coccidioides immitis (San Joaquin Valley, CA); coccidioides posadasii
coccidioidomycosis: who does it infect? most commonly: humans, dogs, horses, llamas; other: cattle, sheep, swine, cats, exotic spp
coccidioidomycosis: canine infection 80% pulmonary dz, 20% disseminated dz; weight loss, dyspnea, anorexia, cough, lameness, draining tracts, abscesses
coccidioidomycosis: equine infection disseminated most common
coccidioidomycosis: llama infection VERY susceptible; respiratory, dermatitis, osteomyelitis, meningitis
coccidioidomycosis: public health >50% infections in humans are asymptomatic; influenza-like to severe pneumonia; disseminated disease (bones, joints, skin, CNS), fatal in immunocomp indiv; zoonotic trans - spherules (tissue form) are not infectious, possible transmission in necropsy
cryptococcosis: 2 pathogenic species cryptococcus neoformans, cryptococcus gattii
4 antigenic types of cryptococcosis neoformans A: C. neoformans grubii; B&C: C. neoformans gattii; D: C. neoformans neoformans
cryptococcosis: feline infection most common systemic fungal infection in cats; primary site - nasal cavity (rostral cavity - mycotic rhinitis, nasal d/c, distortion of nasal cavity; caudal cavity - olfactory bulbs->meningitis); hematogenous spread-cutaneous, ocular lesions
cryptococcosis: canine infection less common than in cats; respiratory tract, eye, skin, periphral LN, CNS
cryptococcosis: equine infection meningitis, nasal granuloma, abortion, pneumonia
cryptococcosis: avian infection rarely affected clinically; are reservoirs; sporadic infection in exotic & wild birds
C. gattii infects whom? normal, healthy humans & animals; cats, dogs, goats, sheep, horses, koalas, opposums, cheetah
which systemic fungi are or are NOT thermally dimorphic? all are! Coccidioidomycosis, blastomycosis, histoplasmosis, cryptococcosis
Created by: shelbell8389