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VET 1250 Final Rev

What compartment of the heart has the thickest wall? left ventricle
these blood vessels do not have muscles in their walls capillaries
the heart muscle is called myocardium
what are the largest leukocytes in an animal's circulation monocytes
closing of the semilunar valves corresponds to which of the following S2
what organ stores blood to be used when oxygen is needed spleen
what makes erythrocytes red hemoglobin
which cell does not phagocytize foreign material lymphocytes
which of the following occurs during systole cardiac muscle contracts, blood is ejected from the ventricles in the arteries, blood is ejected from the atria to the ventricles
which valve has two flaps mitral
what term is used to describe the production of antibodies (or immunoglobulins) by plasma cells humoral immunity
which leukocyte is involved in antibody production and cellular immunity lymphocyte
what makes plasma yellow bilirubin
what is the parent cell of the platelet megakaryocyte
what part of the heart is in the tip of the apex left ventricle
what part of the heart is in the tip of the apex left ventricle
at what level is the heart in horses and ruminents between the second and sixth rib
what is the name of clotting factor IV calcium
the three granulocytes are eosinophils, neutrophils, basophils
which vein is often used for venipuncture in rodents coccygeal
what is the name of the connection between the right and left atria in the fetus foramen ovale
what vein lies along the medial aspect of the hind limb between the groin and tarsal joint femoral
to what does O2 attach in erythrocytes iron that is part of the heme group
what organ releases erythropoietin to stimulate erythrocyte production by the bone marrow kidney
what immunoglobulin is made during the first exposure to an antigen IgG
Where does blood that has just been oxygenated in the lungs flow next left atrium
what does the T wave represent on the electrocardiogram repolarization of the ventricles
the process of coating invading microorganisms with specific antibodies that help neutrophils phagocytize them is called opsonization
deoxygenated blood enters the heart in the cranial and caudal vena cavae true
an electrocardiogram is the representation of the electric current passing through the heart true
the tricuspid valve prevents backflow from the left ventricle to the left atrium false
the spleen is the largest lymphoid tissue in the body true
after antigenic stimulation, B cells transform into plasma cells true
these contain histamine and heparin/ allergic reaction basophil
anti-inflammatory response, humoral immunity, phagocytosis of parasitic eosinophil
engulf microorganisms and other microscopic debris in tissue, granules are lysosomes neutrophil
clean up cellular debris following inflammation/infection monocyte
what are the main functions of blood transport, regulate, defense
difference between plasma and serum plasma= clotting factors serum=none
common function of all white cells provide defense against foreign invaders
what are the 3 functions of platelets maintenance of vascular integrity, platelet plug formation, stabilization of the hemostatic plug by contributing to fibrin formation
T cell attaches to an antigenic site and becomes sensitized then divides to form different cells cell-mediated immunity
production of antibodies humoral immunity
secretin and cholecystokinin are produced by the cells lining the small intestine
the target for epinephine and norepinephrine is the whole body
a deficiency of ADH in the body causes diabetes insipidus
somatotropic hormone works to promote the hyperglycemic effect
calcitonin functions to prevent hypercalcemia
the pituitary gland is also called hypophysis
mineralocorticoid that causes sodium ions to be reabsorbed by the kidney back into the bloodstream in exchange for potassium and hydrogen ions aldosterone
rising amounts of this hormone in the blood cause the anterior pituitary to produce less and less FSH estrogen
in most animals ovulation occurs when this hormone reaches its peak LH
two other hormones in addition to glucagon that function to raise blood sugar levels are growth hormones and glucocorticoids
calcium plays in an important roll in milk secretion, muscle contraction, blood clotting
thyroid hormone affects the metabolism of proteins, lipids, and carbs similar to GH
the posterior pituitary gland receives these hormones from the hypothalamus oxytocin and LH
this structure produces progestin hormones needed to maintain pregnancy corpus luteum
the production of thyroid hormone increases with exposure to cold temperature
hormone secretion is usually controlled by negative feedback systems
this hormone helps trigger and maintain lactation prolactin
testosterone is a steroid with an overall ______ effect anabolic
LH is also known as interstitial cell-stimulating hormone
the pancreas provide insulin which functions to lower blood levels of glucose
these hormones help to maintain blood pressure, resist effects of stress, cause blood glucose to rise, and are also known as steroids glucocorticoids
this hormone stimulates strong uterine contractions in the uterus at the time of parturition oxytocin
stimulates the lining cells of follicles in the female to produce estrogen FSH
another name for somatotropic hormone is growth hormone
the neurohypophysis stores hormones produced in the hypothalamus true
the posterior pituitary is also known as the neurohypophysis true
thyroid hormone allows an animal to generate heat and maintain a constant internal body temp when temperature outside changes true
insulin has a hyperglycemic effect in the body false
if the thyroid hormone level in the blood is too hight, TSH release is decreased true
in males spermatogenesis is stimulated by FSH true
the chemical messengers for the nervous system are hormones and the for the endocrine system are neurotransmitters false
oxygen is carried on hemoglobin in RBC
Eosinophils help responds to allergic reactions and anaphylaxis true
Neutrophil granuels dont stain. These cells are considered neutral. They are easily identifiable because they are segmented true
platelets maintain_____ form the platlet plug, and stabilize the homeostatic plug. vascular integrity
Lymphocytes have ______ round_____ nucleus that takes up most of the cell Large; unsegmented
at what level is the heart in horses between the 2nd and 6th rib
where does blood that has just been oxygenated in the lungs flow next to the left atrium
a reflex arc commonly used to assess the depth of anesthesia is pupillary light reflex
sensations from the gastrointestinal tract are provided by this nerve CN X, vagus
the two principle divisions that make up the nervous system are the peripheral and central
when you pet a dog, which receptors send a sensation from the skin to the dog's brain afferent
the two types of cells found in the nervous system neurons and glia cells
the part of the nervous system that controls involuntary nervous system functions is the autonomic nervous system
the blood-brain barrier is found in the capillaries
cells that produce myelin for the cells of the spinal cord and brain are the oligodendrocytes
the electrical difference in charges across a neuron cell membrane is the resting membrane potential
somatic reflex arcs involve skeletal muscle
which of the following neurotransmitters is a catecholamine: enkephalin, acetylcholine, endorphin, dopamine dopamine
this supplies a rich network of blood vessels that supply nutrients and oxygen to the superficial tissues of the brain and spinal cord meninges
during the relative refractory period, the cell may depolarize if the stimulus is much larger than normal
an influx of ____ into the synaptic knob results in the fusing of vesicles containing neurotransmitters with the knob's cellular membrane calcium
an action potential can be described as a large change in electrical charge from negative to positive inside the cell
the types of neurons that carry impulses to the brain and spinal cord are called sensory neurons
cells that are important in the blood brain barrier are the astrocytes
during repolarization potassium ions move out of the cells
the gray matter of the spinal cord contains neuron cell bodies
cells that support neurons structurally and functionally are called neuroglia
the sympathetic nervous system causes pupil dilation, constriction of small blood vessels supplying the kidneys, skin, and gastrointestinal tract
increases heart rate acetylcholine
the part of the brain responsible for learning, intelligence, and awareness ("higher-order" functions) is cerebrum
the brainstem includes the pons, midbrain, and medulla oblongata
the sodium-potassium pump moves potassium ions from inside to outside the neuron's cell membrane false
during depolarization, sodium ions move into the neuron true
nicotinic and muscarinic are names from adrenergic receptors false
spinal nerves are in the cns false
in a flight or fight situation, activity in the gastrointestinal tract is increased false
nerves for the sympahtetic nervous system emerge from the thoracic and lumbar vertebral regions in the back true
a nerve impulse is a wave of depolarization along the cell membrane true
the myelin sheath and nodes of Ranvier work together to enhance the speed of conduction of nerve impulses along axons true
portion of gray matter of the spinal cord that conducts sensory impulses dorsal horn
middle of the major branches of the brachial plexus median nerve
section of the brain responsible for subconscious functions diencephelon
brain and spinal cord central nervous system
section of the brain responsible for learning, intellegence, and awareness cerebrum
nerve found on the medial surface of thigh near the femoral artery femoral nerve
structure of the brain made of nerve fibers connect to R and L hemispheres corpus callosum
nerve cell, basic functional unit neuron
middle layer of the meninges arachnoid
nerve that carry messages away from the brain to the rest of the body motor nerve
fold in the cerebrum, and cerebellum gyrus
portion of the diencephelon links the brain with the pituitary gland hypothalamus
cranial nerve vII facial nerve
connective tissue layer that covers the brain and spinal cord meninges
section of the brain that is a passageway between the brain stem and cerebrum brain stem
section of the brain responsible for movement balance, posture, and reflexes cerebellum
large nerve found on the lateral side of the hind leg beneath the biceps muscle sciatic nerve
shallow fissures that seperate the gyri sulcus
outer fibrous layer of the meninges dura mater
cnc made up of neuron cell bodies and unmyelinated nerve fibers gray matter
cranial nerve x vagus nerve
collection of nerve fibers in the cns that are surrounded by myelin white matter
nerves originate from the brain cranial nerves
largest most cranial of the branches of the brachial plexus radial nerve
part of the diencephalon that acts as a relay station for regulating sensory impulse Thalamus
Explain what is occurring during Depolarizations Na+ channel opens allowing Na+ ions to flow into the cell quickly
Explain what is occurring during Repolarization Na+ channels close and K+ channels open allowing K+ to flow out of the cell.
If an animal is not pregnant, the corpus luteum degenerates at the end of diestrus true
what occurs during capacitation release of digestive enzymes from the acrosome
sperm cells develop in the seminiferous tubules
What happens if an ovum has been fertilized and implants in the uterus? the corpus luteum is maintained, progesterone is produced
Where does fertilization USUALLY take place fallopian tube
Metritis may develop in ruminants if part of the placenta is retained true
Which animal is diestrous? fox, cattle, dog, swine dog
The hormone that causes the formation of the corpus luteum and is also the ovulation hormone is: lh
If estrogen in the female is the counterpart of testosterone in the male, then which part of the ovary would be the counterpart of the interstitial cells of the testes? granulosa cells
The tube that leaves the scrotal sac and enters the abdominal cavity is the ductus deferens
What hormone helps transport spermatozoa to the oviduct inside the uterus oxytocin
In cold conditions, this muscle contracts to pull the testes up closer to the body for warmth cremaster
The tube that carries sperm out of the body and is also part of the urinary system is the urethra
What structure connects the fetus to the placenta umbilical cord
In which animal would you expect to find diffuse attachment of the placenta to the uterus during pregnancy horse
regarding oogenisis: Primary oocytes have a normal diploid chromosome number for each species
What is the significance of the bulb of the glans in the dog When it is enlarged, it is impossible for the male to withdraw from the female
Which hormone keeps the myometrium calm and quiet during gestation progesterone
What hormone level must increase (or surge) before ovulation will occur lh
Where are androgens produced in the male interstitial cells
Which of the following occur during estrus Physical and behavioral changes signal the female’s willingness to breed to the male.
When gametes unite, they form zygote
Which layer of placenta attaches to the uterus chorion
After ovulation, the hormone-secreting remnant of the follicle is called the: corpus luteum
The acrosome of the sperm cell contains enzymes that help break down the covering of the ovum
In what part of the female reproductive tract does mitosis begin within the zygote oviduct
Which of the following occur during proestrus The epithelial lining of the vagina cornifies
What hormone causes muscle-like myoepithelial cells around the alveoli and small ducts to contract oxytocin
What is the name of the process that involves the uterus gradually returning to its nonpregnant size involution
Which cells have a haploid chromosome number spermatozoa and ova
What is another name for interstitial cell stimulating hormone (ICSH)? lh
Why is the midpiece of the spermatozoon referred to as the “power plant” of the cell? It contains many energy-producing mitochondria
Created by: maiken



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