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Rodents

Rabbits, Rodents and Ferrets Lecture 10-

QuestionAnswer
What are included in the suborder myomorpha? rats, mice, hamsters, gerbils
What are included in the suborder hystricomorphia? guinea pigs, chinchillas
What are included in the suborder sciuromorpha? squirrels, prairie dogs
Historical uses of rodents: pest animals, lab animals, pets
Dental anatomy of rodents: 2 front teeth - 4 incisors (top and bottom), rodent means to gnaw, no canines, molars vary
Gerbils have "....." colored ventral belly and skin glands orange
Syrian hamsters have "...." colored hip skin glands Brown
Rodents have varying _______ and _______ which are important to know so you can understand what is normal integument and glands
Rats have _____ glands that produce a liquidy substance that appears like blood Harderian
Why do rats release liquidy red tears? Stress or illness
True or False, rodents keep thymus throughout life TRUE
What is brown fat? storage of food for hybernation, normal anatomical thing in rodents
How do you determine sex in rodents? anogenital distance, distance between anus and prepuce greater in males, also females have 3 orifices and nipples
What is the best rodent diet? Varies Rats/Mice: rodent blocks are good Guinea pigs, Chinchillas, etc: it varies
What bedding is best for rodents? Wood Shavings: cedar, aspen, mixed hardwoods ..... not pine, or with added chemicals Newspaper Processed bedding -- cooked corn cobs, recycled paper, etc.
What is the sniff test? Put cedar into a pickle bucket --- if you can stand the smell in a bucket for approx 5 minutes, then it's probably okay --- NOT REALITY, just proving a point
What is the downside of rodent bedding - especially corn cobs? If they get wet, can grow mold ---- must change fairly often
What species enjoy Dust Baths? Chinichillas, Degus, Gerbils
Expected life spans: Mouse 1.5-3y Rat 2.5-3.5y Gerbil 3-4y Hamster 1.5-2y Guinea Pig 4-5y Chinchilla 8-10y
What is appropriate rodent restraint? most can be gently handled and cradled mice: can be scruffed at neck and pulled by tail rats: can put hand behind shoulders and hold tail at base hamsters/gerbils: scruff until they smile guinea pigs/chinchillas: gentle
True or False, rodents need vaccines FALSE, just focus on husbandry and nutrition
blood collection sites in rodents: Go for the jug, or cephalic saphenous, metatarsal, or lateral tail vein
NEVER do __________ in rodents for a blood sample: toe nail clips, rotrobulbar sticks, or cardiac sticks (under anesthesia only and if the life did not matter)
What blood tubes should you use? Purple EDTA and red top, occasionally if sample is too small can use heparin in the syringe and put into green top (not preferred though)
Rodents need a ________ mg/kg dosage of chemotherapeutics than dogs due to metabolic scaling higher
What radiographic artifact may we see around rodent skulls? Food in their cheek pouches
What are common traumas seen in rodents? Abdominal trauma, broken bones, spine/head injuries
How do you treat broken bones? you can try splints, but they often chew them off - so amputation is a viable option
What are errors in husbandry often result in health problems? Over feeding, inappropriate diet (bird seeds), lack of water
What is mycoplasma pulmonis? A very common mycoplasma in rats and mice CS: sneezing, respiratory distress, otitis media Dx: serology, culture Tx: Doxycycline and/or Enrofloxacin
Why will you not see open mouth breathing in rodents in respiratory distress? They are obligate nasal breathers
What disease am I describing: Common CS: pneumonia, acute dz w/ sudden death Dx: Bacterial culture Tx: Enrofloxacin or chloramphenicol Pasteurella multocida (Pasteurellosis)
Name the etiology: Common CS: respiratory distress in juveniles Dx: serology and virus isolation Tx: self limiting (1-2w), supportive tx Paramyxovirus (Sendai Virus)
What are common characteristics of dental disease in rodents? Genetic or traumatic, very common CS: abnormal teeth, anorexia, weight loss nasal d/c Dx: PE and Rads Tx: clipping or removal of affected teeth
What is different about dental disease between rodents and rabbits? Rodents have greater problems with incisors while rabbits have more problems with molars (rabbit molars are evergrowing and often result in occlusion problems)
What kidney diseases due you see in rodents? Specifically, rats, hamsters, and gerbils? Rats: chronic progressive nephrosis Hamsters: Renal amyoidosis Gerbils: chronic interstitial nephritis
What is a common disease we actually cause in rodents? antibiotic associated enteritis
What abx are actual toxic to rodents and what are the CS? Streptomycin and Dihydrostreptomycin Neuromuscular blockade
Describe the characteristics of abx associated enteritis: Iatrogenic, endotoxemia, very common CS: diarrhea, bloat, rectal prolapse dx: recent abx, clinical signs tx: supportive care; however true dysbiosis has very poor prognosis
Which species are most susceptible to dysbiosis? Hamsters, Guinea Pigs, Rabbits, Horses, Humans Cows, Cats, Dogs In order of most to least susceptible
Which abx are least likely to induce AAE? aminoglycosides, chloramphenicol, fluroquinolones, metronidazole, trimethoprim-sulfa
Which abx are MOST likely to incude AAE? amoxicillin, ampicillin, clindamycin, erythromycin, lincomycin, teteracycline
What disease occurs occasionally, presents acutely as septicemia and anorexia or chronically as gradual wasting? You diagnose with culture and treat supportively, possibly with abx. Salmonella
Describe Tyzzer's Disease Clostridium piliforme Incidence: moderate CS: diarrhea, weight loss, and high mortality Dx: serology and histopathology Tx: penicillin and tetracycline ----- but dysbiosis??
What intestinal parasites are common? Many different, classic example is pin worms in mice Giardia and crytopsporidium can also be of concern
What dermatological disease is characterized by an annular constriction of the tail? Tail necrosis or "ring tail"
How do you treat ring tail? Increase humidity, but usually amputate
What is barbering? A behavioral problem characterized by hair loss with normal skin, usually over the nose or flank - likely due to overcrowding. Treat by decreasing crowding and removing aggressive animals.
How do you recognize and treat bite wounds? small laceration seen on tail, rump, neck, and head - treat by decreasing crowding and removing aggressive animals
What causes pododermatitis? sharp or rough floor surfaces (wire caging) ---- cause wounds and welling on the feet Tx: replace flooring, clean wounds
What is the main culprit for bacterial dermatitis? irritating or filthy bedding
How do you dx and tx bacterial dermatitis? dx: culture and cytology tx: abx and removal of dirty bedding
What dermatophytes do we commonly see in rodentss? Trichophyton metagrophytes (primary species, unlike dogs or cats) and Microsporum sp.
How do you diagnose and tx dermatophytosis? focal alopecia on PE, Dx: KOH cytology or DTM culture Tx: Itraconazole, Terbinafine
What external parasites cause dermatological lesions on rodents? Mites (demodex, myobia, trxacarus, liponyssus) Lice
What common mite do we see in rats? Ornithonyssus bacoti - found in rats, mice, gerbils, and hamsters
What is chromodacryorrhea and what species is it common in? red discharge from the eyes and nose, often from stress, dx w/ wood's lamp or cytology, no treatment ---- common to RATS
What chronic mycoplasmosis is particularly common in rats? Mycoplasma pulmonis
What respiratory disease in rats is associated with the cilia and diagnosed with serology, culture, or electron mycroscopy? Cilia-Associated Respiratory Bacillus (CAR)
What is the tx for CAR? None - supportive care
What are the characteristics of streptocuccus pneumonia? common respiratory disease with rhinitis, septiciemia, dx w/ culture/cytology and tx w/ penicillin occurs in rats
Describe Pseudoteuberculosis Corynebacterium kutscheri --- respiratory distress and systemic infections, dx by bacterial culture and tx w/ tetracycline
what viral penumonias are concerning in rats? Sendai and Rat Respiratory virus (Hantavirus)
What disease is very common in older rats? Renal Disease (chronic progressive nephrosis)
What old rat disease is characterized by gradual hind limb ataxia, muscle atrophy, and incontinence? Posterior Paresis (radiculoneuropathy of the spinal roots)
What is the most important rat neoplasia? mammary gland fibroadenomas
What other rat tumors are concerning? pituitary gland adenomas, testicular cell interstitial cell adenomas, and thyroid gland (C cell) adenomas
What respiratory virus is common in juvenile mice? What is a common co-infection? Sendai (Paramyxovirus), usually self limiting (1-2w), supportive tx Often co-infected with mycoplasma
What is a likely cause of diarrhea and prolapsed rectum in juvenile mice and how do you dx and tx? Citrobacter enteretis (citrobacter freundii), dx: bacterial culture, tx: tetracycline
What is 'mouse hepatitis' virus? Coronavirus -- mostly a lab-animal disease - CS: enteritis, diarrhea, failure to grow -- self-limiting
What happens in mice that is characterized by self-mutilation and an inability to urinate? Urethral obstruction: Bacterial infection of the preputial glands, uroliths, or trauma
What mites are classic in mice? Myobia musculi and myocoptes musculinus, raffordia affinis
How do you dx and tx mites and mice? Dx: skin scrape Tx: ivermectin
What dermatological problem is prevalent in all rodents, but particularly important in mice? barbering and fight wounds
What progressive necrosis dermatitis affects the ears of mice? Idiopathic ulcerative dermatitis
What aggressive neoplasia is common to mice? Mammary gland adenocarcinomas (Mouse Mammary Tumor Virus?)
What other neoplasias occur in mice? Hepatic carcinomas, lymphocytic leukemia
What is the most common hamster? Syrian hamster
Hamsters have large family trees, True or False FALSE --- narrow trees, all very similar 3 animals began syrian hamster line!
How much food can hamsters carry in their cheek pouches? half their body weight
What common organism is responsible for pneumonia and acute death in hamsters? Pasteurella multocida Dx: bacterial culture Tx: enrofloxacin, chloramphenicol
What are syrian hamsters used for in lab-animal medicine? immunology and toxin research (toxins in the pouches)
What subclinical disease in hamsters (and other rodents, esp. wild mice) has been associated with malformations in human pregnancies? Lymphocytic Choriomeningitis (LCM)
What disease is caused by lawsonia intracellularis in hamsters? CS, Dx, Tx: "Wet Tail" or Proliferative Enteritis, v common CS: diarrhea, anorexia, rectal prolapse, intestinal intusseceptions Dx: CS, histopath (warthin-starry stain) Tx: supportive, chloramphenicol, enrolfoxacin
True or False, hamsters are less sensitive to AAE than other rodents? FALSE, VERY SUSCEPTIBLE
What is the classic cause of renal failure in hamsters? Amyloidosis CS: hypoproteinemia, ascites Common in older hamsters Can also have hepatic consequences
What are 2 common causes of hamster sudden death or presenting in severe respiratory distress? Arterial thrombosis or Cardiomyopathy
What else is adrenocortical hyperplasia in hamsters known as? CUSHINGS CS: alopecia, PU/PD Tx: none documented
What does a congenital problem in the bile duct of hamsters cause? Hepatic cysts CS: swelling of the abdomen, Dx: PE, US no treatment
What normal finding on hamsters may look like infection? postovulatory discharge --- mucous plug in vulva
What type of lymphoma do hamsters suffer from Epizootic hamster polyomavirus in young animals
What other cancers do hamsters get? Lymphomas and trichoepitheliomas, SCC, melanomas
What is the common pet gerbil? Mongolian gerbil
What disease is common in gerbils characterized by diarrhea, weight loss, and high mortality? Tyzzer's Disease - clostridium piliforme
What type of facial dermatitis is common in gerbils? Sore Nose --- Staphyloccus, chromodacrorrhea, moist or bloody nose Dx: PE Tx: chloramphenicol, cage hygiene
How do you recognize a scent gland problem in gerbils? they occasionally become swollen or inflamed, usually normal; however cytology can indicate infection --- tx: abx or sx
What common neuro disorder occurs in gerbils? Seizures --- epileptic-like, when stimulated or startled (occurs in about 20-40% of gerbils) Usually no tx --- just don't startle gerbil Sometimes phenobarbital
What do you need to be careful of with gerbils? Degloving the tail (tail slip) --- tx: amputation
What can a rat block diet cause in gerbils? Periodontal disease (lesions, obesity, diabetes) Tx: formulated pellets for hamsters or gerbils
What neoplasias are concerning in gerbils? ovarian granulosa cell tumors, SCC of skin and ventral abdominal glands, melanomas of ears and feet, lymphosarcoma
What is the life-span of guinea pigs? 5-6 years
What is a diet necessity of guinea pigs? Vitamin C
Where were guinea pigs domesticated? S. America
What is important to guinea pig husbandry? good ventilation, a hide box, and may be housed in groups
What is a guinea pig diet composed of? HERBIVORES: grass hay base, limited pellets, small amounts of leafy greans
What textbook pneumonia occurs in guinea pigs? Bordetella bronchiseptica, also Strep. sp. CS: pneumonia, respiratory distress, rhinitis, conjunctivitis Dx: bacterial culture Tx: enrofloxacin
T/F rabbits and guinea pigs should not live together b/c of bordetella? False --- they can live together; however, this disease can be transmitted from rabbits to guinea pigs (it's a risk --- documented in lab animal world)
What self-limiting disease in guinea pigs causes conjuntivitis in juveniles? If you tx, what can you use? Chlamydiosis (Chlamydia cavi) Dx: cytology Tx: enroflxacin, topical ophthalmologic tx
T/F - guinea pigs are sensitive to allergens TRUE
What does allergic pneumonitis look like in guinea pigs? acute respiratory distress, treat with oxygen and epinephrine
What diseases cause diarrhea in guinea pigs? Clostridium difficile and Coronavirus
What abx would you use to treat clostridial enteritis? cephalexin
What is the common cause of c. difficile? antibiotics or change of diet
How do you tx gastric bloat in guinea pigs? stomach tube, rare
Intestinal hypomotility and stasis in guinea pigs should be treated with: supportive care, fluids, and pain control
How do you treat fecal impaction in guinea pigs? supportive care, fluids, enemas w/ manual evacuation
What is a common urinary issue in guinea pigs? cystitis and uroliths (struvite, Ca oxalate, and Ca carbonate)
How do you treat cystitis or uroliths in guinea pigs? cystitis - enro uroliths -surgery, vitamin C
How do you treat streptococcal lymphadenitis? lance abcess, chloramphenicol
How do guinea pigs get scurvy? not enough Vitamin C
CS of scurvy? periodontal bleeding, lameness, diarrhea
THE disease of Guinea Pigs: Vitamin C deficiency -- Scurvy
What 2 separate diseases are associated with late pregnancy or soon after delivery in guinea pigs? eclampsia (hypocalcemia) ketosis
What pregnancy risk is a concern in guinea pigs associated w/ delivery? Dystocia ---- can have fusion of pelvic symphysis if not bred early
What common occurrence affects non-breeding female guinea pigs? ovarian cysts (treat w/ OHE)
What is guinea pig mange? trixacarus cavaie ---> alopecia, pruritus, crusting, dx: skin scrapes, tx: ivermectin
Guinea Pig neoplasia that behaves like a retrovirus: lymphosarcoma
Guinea pigs are one of the few species that get ______ cancer: primary lung
Other guinea pig neoplasias: basal cell epithelioma, uterine leiomyomas, ovarian teratomas, mammary gland fibroadenomas
Chinchilla fast facts: adapted to cold, live in family units, life span of 10y or more
chinchilla husbandry: adequate cage size for climbing, exercise wheel, hide box, sand baths
What should chinchillas eat? grass hay base with limited pellets (herbivores)
What is a big problem of chinchillas in Florida? heat stroke -- prolonged exposure to over 80F
What is paraphimosis post-copulatory accumulation of fur around the penis
What is slobbers? lay term for dental dz in chinchillas --- drooling
Constipation in chinchillas is ________ diet related
when treating protozoal enteritis in chinchillas what medication should you avoid? metronidazole
What disease causes a head tilt, anorexia, and diarrhea in guinea pigs Listeria
Neurologic chinchilla is likely a victim of: balisascaris procyonis
Degu fun facts: diurnal, adapted to cold, live in family units, life span 5-9y
Degu husbandry: adequate cage for climbing, solid floor w/ substrate, exercise wheel, hide box, sand baths
Degu diet: Herbivores! grass hay base, limited pellets, avoid sweet foods
PU/PD, weight loss, cataracts in degus = DM
Secondary disease to DM and obesity, degu presents for ADR: hepatic lipidosis
Pododermatitis in degus --- secondary infection with: Staph aureus
Degus susceptible to _____ from trauma tail slip
Neoplasia of degus hepatocellular carcinomas, bronchioalveolar carcinomas
Prairie dog fun facts: diurnal, family units, life span 8-10y, puberty 2-3y
Why are prairie dogs different? Reach puberty late
Prairie dog husbandry: adequate cage size for foraging and digging, dirt substrate, solid or wire flooring, exercise wheel, prefer to live in groups
husbandry problems of prairie dogs: obesity, heart disease, pododermatitis, incisor malocclusion
prairie dog diet: grass hay base, limited pellets, supplement w/ veggies, fruit, seeds (herbivores)
diseases of prairie dogs: alopecia, plague!, odontomas, DCM!
prairie dog neoplasia: hepatocellular carcinoma (viral?) stomach adenocarcinoma
What are odontomas? proliferative lesion blocking the nose having to do with dental problems (malocclusion) ---- prairie dogs have incisor problems
Created by: Sara2420