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Rabbits, Rodents and Ferrets Lectures 7-9

What are rabbits? Lagomorphs: Oryctolagus cuniculus
How are rabbits different from rodents? Teeth configuration --- ex: have 4 incisors whereas rodents only have 2
What is the weight range for rabbits? <1kg - 9kg... over 50 breeds (dwarfs <1kg, flemish/checkered giant 9kg)
what are the historical uses of rabbits? game, domesticated food animal, lab animal, vermin, pets
What is unique to the skin and glands of rabbits? Skin: think and easy to tear No foot pads Glands: anal, inguinal, and chin --- chin and inguinal usually for marking
Why is the nasolacrimal duct clinically important? It has a single ventral punctum and narros at two spots - proximal maxilla and base of upper incisor (important because these sites can be blocked)
What is unusual about rabbit dental roots? They are open --- continue growing throughout the life of the animal, about 3mm/week
Describe the rabbit stomach thing walled, poorly distensible, vomiting unlikely, food, hair, anc cecal pellets are usually present, hindgut fermenters, rapid fiber elimination
Where occurs in the rabbit cecum? bacterial fermentation, it is thin-walled, coiled, with many sacculations - located on the R side of the abdomen and contents are semi-fluid
What occurs in the colon? separation of fiber and fluid, fluid retropulsed into cecum
What is the function of the ileocecocolic complex? The sacculus rotundus valve functions to segregate out smaller fiber into the cecum to produce VFAs and the undigested fiber into the colon
Describe coprophagy in rabbits In the morning, they eat some fecal matter directly from the anus: protein and vitamin rich material It is different from the regular feces, produced in the morning, soft and moist --- allows the contents of the cecum to flush out (caecotrophs)
Describe normal rabbit kidneys single papilla, pH of urine 8-9 (basic), calcium sludge in the urine, and the urine is orange/red (porphyrins)
What's important about rabbit ears? High vascular - with central auricular artery and marginal veins. Don't give injectable meds in the central artery... put it in the veins! Important for thermoregulation Vertical and horizontal canal
Rabbit Reproductive tract Bicornuate uterus and 2 cervices
How do we determine male v female rabbits? Males: round urethral opening, penis extrudable at 2 months, hairless scrotal sacs, larger head Females: elongated vulva, heavy dewlap
Describe rabbit oestrus cycle induced ovulators (but not pathogenic as in ferrets), no definitive estrus cycle, do become receptive behaviorly (chin rubbing on objects, lordosis, congested vulva)
Breeding characteristics of rabbits Does are more territorial - so the female is taken to the male Bucks mate any time Nesting behavior: burrowing, hair plucking Pregnancy: 30-32days, palpation >14d Parturition occurs in the early morning
How are baby rabbits born? Altricial (well developed), placental Ab transfer but still need colostrum, nurse SID/BID, emerge from next in 3 weeks, coprophagy at 3 weeks, weaning 4-6 weeks
Describe rabbit behavior high social, burrowing, mutual grooming, scent is important, thumping is an alarm call, they are prey animals and may show fear with paralysis, flight, or screaming
What is appropriate group housing for rabbits? Adults may fight if put together, littermates are usually compatible, but unrelated females need space, neutering decreases conflict, all intros. should be supervised
Outdoor rabbit housing should be: Off the ground, avoid sunlight, protect from extremes, waterproof, enough space to stretch out, stand, 3 hops, solid nesting area, bedding (paper, hay, etc), good ventilation, need daily exercise, prevent escape (they like to burrow)
Indoor housing for rabbits: Secure cage, wire diameter - fractures, provide exercise daily, litter training Caution with children, electric cables, other pets, toxic plants
What do we feed rabbits? monogastric hindgut fermenters: grass and hay, small amount of commercial pellet (18-24% fiber, 15% protein), garden forage, fresh veggies Can survive on grass alone Limit pellet diets, adults and pregnant or lactating does can have higher amounts
What hay types are good for rabbits? Timothy (most popular): bails, cubes, oxbow critical care Orchard grass: also available at pet stores, slight mixture of hay Bermuda grass: less high quality but can be used, preferably not primary source Alfalfa hay: good for growing and lactating
What is a side effect of alfalfa hay? high calcium may result in urolithiasis, also high carb diet may alter hindgut flora leading to clostridial overgrowth
How much water do rabbits need? 120ml/kg/day temp dependent increases with high fiber and high protein diet
How should you bring a rabbit to the vet? Bring in their cage (not cleaned) with water/food bowls, bring food samples, meds/supplements, fresh fecal sample, cover w/ blanket
What history do you want to obtain? origin, length of relationship, housing, exposure to other , owners evaluation (food/water intake, droppings, behavior, environment)
PE of rabbits Lifespan: 5-10y Rectal temp: 103-104 HR: 130-325 RR: 32-60
How do you restrain a rabbit? Like a football
what can poor rabbit restraint result in? Broken backs --- they can kick the air and break their backs
Rabbit anesthesia: Don't fast, don't pull water more than 6hrs, atropinesterase (so atropine not very effective) Prmeds: Opioids (bup, butorphanol), Midazolam, intra-nasal valium Induction: mask, aquarium, inj.
How do you intubate a rabbit? extend the neck, listen to expiration, push tube
Where is the best place to put an IV catheter? Jugular
What other venipuncture sites can you use? cephalic, saphenous, marginal (ear)
What species would you compare a rabbit Chem to? Horse
What is different on a rabbit CBC? heterophils
Rabbit radiography cecum has a lot of gas, you can see kidneys, fecal material, bladder, notice unlike ferret the heart is cranial (thoracic inlet), head anatomy (jaws, dental problems)
What do you use in rabbit blood tubes? EDTA
What is the most important rabbit disease? Pasteurella multocida (AKA snuffles) Gram neg, bipolar, aerobid rod various serotypes
How is pasteurellosis transmitted? aerosol, direct contact, fomites, venereal
What factors predispose pasteurellosis infection? poor nutrition, stress, poor husbandry (overcrowding, poor ventilation), immunodeficiency
What are the CS of pasteurellosis? EVERYTHING Upper Respiratory: "snuffles", rhinitis, sinusitis, conjunctivitis, dacryocytitis Otitis ANY other organ: pleuropneumonia, bacteremia, abscesses, pyometra
How do you diagnose pasteurellosis? PE, CBC/Chem (generalized infection), Culture (difficult to grow)
How do you treat pasteurellosis? Clinical signs, supportive care Enrofloxacin, chloramphenicol, Trimeth-sulfa, Penicillin G benzathine w/ caution
What other organisms cause similar disease to pasteurellosis in rabbits? Bordetella, Pseudomonas, Staph
What is the prognosis of pasteurellosis? varies, good if caught early and mild URI, poor prognosis w/ pneumonia, osteomyelitis, otitis interna, abscesses, recurrence v. common
What are the most common manifestations of pasteurellosis? 1. rhinitis, sinusitis 2. conjunctivitis Also can be subclinical
What does nasolacrimal duct obstruction cause and how do you dx/tx? epiphora, scalding of face, alopecia catheterization - small teflon catheter, local/possibly general anesthesia
Rabbit abscesses are: simple to dx, difficult to tx Check for bone involvement, other abscesses, recurrence Tx: complete sx excision, abx ipregnanted beads
What is torticollis? A fancy name for a head tilt Very common in rabbits Ddx: encephalitozoon, parasitic larval migration, toxoplasmosis, trauma, and obviously p. multocida
How do you tx torticollis associated w/ middle or inner ear inf? medical or surgical interventions
What microsporidium causes torticollis? Encephalitozoon cuniculi: obligate intracellular protozoan, urine-oral transmission, doe and young, usually in intestines - bloodstream Transmits by spores in urine Most cases are chronic/subclinical: CNS dz, runting, renal dz Pathognomonic: Uvei
How do you dx and treat microsporidiosis? Dx: ELISA, IFA, difficult b/c often subclinical in rabbits Tx: None? Benzimadazoles
What is balisascaris? Ascarids from raccoons causing cerebral larva migrans
What are other causes of torticollis in rabbits? toxoplasmosis, trauma, parasitic cysts
How prevalent is Rabies in Rabbits? rare, 30 cases in 26 years
What is a viral disease that rabbits can acquire from humans that may result in neurological signs? Herpes Simplex 1 (though rare)
What poxvirus is common in rabbits? Myxomatosis
What does myxomatosis cause in rabbits? lumps around the rabbit's head and genitals, acute eye infection, discharge, blindness, loss of balance, anorexia, fever, pneumonia, and eventually results in death
What type of poxvirus affects rabbits in the US? no virulent strain, rabbit fibroma (not very severe), myxomatosis (mostly in europe), rabbitpox virus (lab animal dz)
What 3 papillomaviruses affect rabbits? Rabbit Shope Papilloma - natural host is cottontail, hairless wart-like areas of ears and eyelids, can progress to SCC rabbit oral papilloma - benign worts on tongue/lips Rectal papillomas
True or False, rabbit calicivirus is reportable in the US TRUE --- originated in china, endemic in europe, spread by live rabbits and meat products
What are the CS and lesions of calicivirus? CS: lethargy, anorexia, opisthotonus and convulsions, hemorrhagic nasal and vaginal discharges Lesions: large pale liver, organ hemorrhage/necrosis, portal hepatic necrosis, catarrhal enteritis Peracute dz: 24h High mortality 90% Suckling rabbits
What other viral diseases may affect rabbits with GI side effects? Adenovirus, lapine parvovirus, rotavirus
What is trichobezoars in rabbits? 'hair' in the stomach - can be normal May be due to gastric hypomotility caused by low fiber diet, inability to vomit, grooming, boredum May also be a sign of pain or dehydration
How do you dx gastic stasis? signalment, history, PE, rads, ultrasound
How do you tx gastric stasis? Fluids (>100 mL/kg), force feedings (blenderized alfalfa pellets w/ water, rehydrate gastric contents), metoclopramide or cisapride Possibly proteolytic enzymes, pineapple juice? NOT SURGERY!!!
How do you prevent GI stasis? high fiber, high quality diet, decrease stress, obesity, boredum, prophylactic tx (enzymes, cat laxatives), brushing?
What does bloat look like in rabbits? Upper intestinal obstructions (hair or pellets, beans, seads, neoplasia, post spay adhesions) and secondary gas dilated stomach ---> death
Diarrhea in rabbits is an ____________ emergency ---- need IV access
Ddx for mucoid diarrhea in rabbits: Mucoid enteritis (young, diet related) Infections (coccidia, clostridium ass. enterotoxemia, bacterial enteritis, lawsonia intracellularis, tyzzer's dz, cornoavirus or rotavirus) Antibiotic Associated Dysbiosis
What other effects does coccidia have in rabbits? Hepatic (E. stiedae)
What are the causes of bacterial enteritis? E. Coli, Salmonella, Psuedomonas
What is tyzzer's disease? Clostridium piliforme Not seen that often ---- boards question!
What abx can cause abx associated dysbiosis Clindamycin, lincomycin, ampicillin/amoxicillin, erythromycin sometimes penicillin and cephalosporins
Dental disease in rabbits: Always do a PE Disease due to genetics, trauma, low abrasive diet, malnutrition (metabolic bone dz)
What causes overgrown incisors? malocclusion (genetics, trauma)
What are urinary calculi made up of in rabbits? Calcium --- usually absorbed (independent of vitamin D) or eliminated by kidneys, but excessive --> sludge and calculi are calcium carbonate Tx: FLUIDS and decrease calcium intake
What causes an intermittent hematuria, palpably lumpy uterus and occurs in >60% of females >5 years? Uterine Adenocarcinoma
How do you dx and tx uterine adenocarcinomas? Radiographs/ultrasound + CS and PE, usually slow to metastasize, tx: surgery
What ectoparasites do rabbits deal with? Flies (blowflies), Fleas, Lice, Mites
What fleas affect rabbits? cat flea (ctenocephalides felis), rabbit flea (spilopsylla cuniculi), sticktight flea (echnidnophaga gallinacea)
What fly causes myiasis? cuterebra
What are psoroptes cuniculi? ear mite of rabbit, causes crusting in external ear canal, scratching at ears, and shaking head
What are cheyletiella parasitovorax rabbit fur mite, 'walking dandruff'
What is leporacarus gibbus? less common rabbit fur mite, laterally compressed w/ short legs
What is notoedres cati? mite --> crusty, pruritis dermatitsis of the head, neck and trunk
How do you treat rabbit mits? Ivermectin every 2 weeks for 3 treatments, clean environment
What venereal disease affects rabbits? Rabbit Syphilus (Trepenema paraluiscuniculi), transmission is direct contact, clinica disease uncommon, may cause metritis and abortion in females
What are the CS of rabbit syphilus? vesicular swelling, dry scaliness on prepuce/vulva, macules, papules, and ulcers
How do you dx and tx rabbit syphilus? Dx: fluorescent Ab test, darkfield microscopy, silver stains Tx: procaine penicillin IM
Created by: Sara2420



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