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GI - Terrell

Pathology Lecture 1-2

What is the most common GI biopsy of canines submitted? Epulides (29%)
Epulides: Tumor like mass on the gingiva with dental origin
3 types of epulides, origin, and malignancy: 1. Fibromatous epulis, periodontal ligament, benign 2. Ossifying epulis, periodontal ligament, benign 3. Acthanomatous epulis, ameloblastic epithelium, malignant
TRUE or FALSE, benign epulides involve bone lysis FALSE
What do epulides look like? smooth and mushroom shaped?
How common are acanthomatous epulis and do they metastasize 10% of epulis, locally agressive but do not metastasize, must refer to oncologist for surgery (mandibulectomy or maxilectomy)
How common is inflammatory bowel disease in dogs? 25% of canine GI biopsies submitted
How is IBD characterized histopathologically? with villous damage/atrophy and lymphcytic, plasmacytic infiltration
How is IBD diagosed by ruling out recognized parasitic, allergic, and infectious causes of intestinal inflammation
Describe canine gingivitis and it's prevalence? hyperplastic inflammatory lesions of oral epithelium thought to result from chronic antigenic stimulation of the gingiva or buccal mucosa -- 18% of canine GI biopsies
how is gingivitis/stomatitis treated? resolve dental disease --- treat the teeth!
What are the 4 common oral tumors of dogs from most common to least common? Melanoma > Fibrosarcoma > extramedullary plasmacytoma > SCC
What are the 2 forms of oral melanoma and how are they distinguished? Well differentiated vs. poorly differentiated/amelanotic form, distinguished by mitotic rate (<3 is well differentiated with a not 'as bad' prognosis)
Where do high mitotic rate melanomas mestastasize to? regional LN and lungs
TRUE or FALSE, melanomas can be amelanotic TRUE
Which tumor is locally invasive and destructive and often result in euthanasia due to disfigurement? Fibrosarcomas
Which oral tumors are benign but tend to recur? Extramedullary plamacytoma
Which oral tumors are slow growing, often ulcerative and invasive, with metastasis late in the dz SCC
What are Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST) mesenchymal tumor thought to arise from interstitial cells of Cajal and often are misdx as leiomyosarcoma; extraluminal, large, space occupying masses that metastasize in 30% of cases
Describe colorectal polyps occur commonly at anorectal junction, associated w/ tenesmus, hematochezia, diarrhea, and prolapse, sx is usually curative, rarely may have malignant transformation
Describe a rectal plasma cell tumor occur at colorectal junction, raised nodular masses, and often have benign behavior (slow growth, possible recurrence) --- no relation to multiple myeloma
What breed of dogs is predisposed to gingival fibrous hyperplasia? Boxers
Where do viral papillomas occur? on the face and oral mucosa
Who do viral papillomas effect? Usually dogs less than 3 years of age or on immunosuppressive therapy (chemo)
How do you treat viral papillomas? Most will regress on their own over a period of weeks to months - some require surgical excision if they interfere with normal function
What are the common oral tumors in cats? Squamous Cell Carcinoma, and less commonly fibrosarcoma
Oral SCC -- prognosis, treatment? locally invasive and destructive -- higher metastatic potential for laryngeal/tonsillar or sublingual tumors (often to regional LN or lungs), treatment: surgery (wide resection usually difficult) + radiation/chemo
What is the usual cause of death in cats dx with fibrosarcoma? Euthanasia - often due to the disfiguring nature of the disease; metastasis is rare
Describe gingivitis/stomatitis in cats Over 32% of biopsies submitted, inflammatory lesions (ulcerated, thickened lesions), involves paradental stomatitis, lymphoplasmacytic stomatitis, and eosinophilic granuloma
How do you treat paradental gingivitis in cats? Resolution of dental disease
What causes lympoplasmacytic stomatitis? bacterial, viral, +/- dental disease
What causes eosinophilic ulcers/granulomas in cats? unknown - possibly immune mediated
How is IBD related to lymphoma in cats? chronic IBD and low grade intestinal lymphoma may represent a continuum --- difficult to distinguish, and possible IBD progression to LSA
What is a frustration when diagnosing lymphoma? small cell lymphoma often cannot be diagnosed based on biopsy samples of limited size
What is the best approach to distinguishing IBD and lymphoma? Treat for IBD and see if it improves
______ Feline Mast Cell Tumors are often benign while _______ MCTS are aggressive and malignant. Cutaneous = benign, Intestinal = malignant
Where do malignant mast cell tumors met? multiple sites, lymph nodes, other organs --- grave prognosis
What is the most common canine gastrointestinal neoplasia? Adenocarcinoma
What are differentials for adenocarcinoma? pythiosis, ulceratin, hypterophic pyloric gastropathy
What does adenocarcinoma in dogs look like? often ulcerated, palpates hard like a rock
What other GI neoplasias are common in dogs? Adenocarcinoma (stomach, SI, LI), GIST (stomach, SI, LI), Leiomyoma (Stomach, SI), Lymphosarcoma (stomach, small intestine), Colorectal polyps (LI -- benign)
What feline mast GI neoplasias are we concerned about? MCT in the SI, lympoarcoma, leiomyoma in stomach and SI, and adenocarcinoma in SI and LI
Where do you commonly see pythiosis in the south
What breeds of dogs do we regularly see gastric pyloric hypertrophy and how do you treat? Small breeds --- causes outflow obstruction so treat surgically
What is the tx for gastric serosal leiomyoma surgical resection
What is characteristic of intestinal adenocarcinoma lesions? Firm napkin ring appearance -- narrowing and thickening
What can a colonic adenocarcinoma be confused with, how do you differentiate? May appear as a polyp, but larger and diffuse, firm, often w/ ulceration
What virus affects the intestinal crypt cells, myocardium of young animals, and causes immunosuppresion (thymus, lymhpoid tissues, bone marrow suppresion) Parvovirus, Feline Panleuk
What effect does feline panleukopenia have on kittens? cerebellar hypoplasia
What diseases are indistinguishable from mild panleukopenia in cats? FeLV/FIV associated enteritis
What respiratory disease in cats causes oral ulcerations? Calici virus
What bacterial infection can mimic parvo? Salmonella
What bacterial species causes HGE small breed dogs? helicobacter? --- usually not a concern
Who is predisposed to chronicc atrophic gastritis in the pyloric antrum due to helicobacter? Cats --- also some concern in Cheetahs and Ferrets
What are 2 differentials for parasites causing hemorrhagic diarrhea? hooks and whips (ancylostoma, trichuris)
What other nematode species may cause a problem in dogs and cats? Ollulanis tricuspis, spriocerca lupi
What esophageal parasite may undergo malignant transformation into fibrosarc or osteosarc? Spirocerca lupi
What are toxic causes of gastric ulceration? Azalea, Lead, Arsenic, Zinc, Castor bean, mistle toe, aspirin and nsaids
What do steroids and NSAIDS do to cause gastric ulceration? Block prostaglandin synthesis
What disease process may cause oral and gastric ulceration and what is the pathogenesis? Chronic Kidney Disease Ammonia accumulation, increased protein loss delays healing, and decreased AT III production causes clotting abnormalities
What tumor may cause secondary gastric ulcers? Mast Cell Tumors
What is the cause of histiocytic colitis and how to treat, what breed predisposed? Bacteria (E. Coli), Abx, Boxers
Created by: Sara2420



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