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Injectable Agents

Junior - Small Animal Anesthesia Lecture 3

What species is Ketamine approved for? Cats and Primates
Why is ketamine not used alone in dogs? high incidence of seizure, muscle rigidity, and violent and excessive movement
What drugs are commonly used with ketamine? benzodiazepines (diazepam and midazolam)
What other drugs can be used with ketamine if profound sedation is achieved? acepromazine and A2 agonists
If you choose dexmedetomidine + an opioid as a premed, which is preferred for cardiac health as an induction agent: propofol or diazepam/ketamine diazepam/ketamine (it counteracts the bradycardia caused by the dex and opioid combination
What effects do you expect when using ketamine? Increased heart rate, increased blood pressure, increased cardiac output due to sympathetic stim, decreased myocardial contractility, apneustic breathing, and swallowing
When is ketamine contraindicated? With increased ICP, hepatic problems, chronic kidney disease in cats, increased BP, and corneal ulcers (increased intraocular pressure)
What combination of drugs with ketamine would you use in sick patients? 1:1 diazepam ketamine, with 1/4 of dose given at a time every 15-30s
What is the difference btw ketamine + diazepam or ketamine + midazolam minimal difference - ketamine/midazolam may have a slightly faster induction
what combination of drugs w/ ketamine would you use in aggressive animals? dexmedetomidine, wait for sedation, IV ketamine at lower dose
How would you combine acepromazine with ketamine? acepromazine + opioid IM, wait for sedation then IV injection of ketamine
What is Telazol made up of? Tiletamine and Zolazepam
How is Telazol reconstituted? lyophilized powder with 5 ml of saline, 5% dextrose or water resulting in a concentration of 50mg/mL of each drug
How is Telazol approved for use? As an IM injection in dogs and cats, but has been used clinically as an IV induction agent using lower dosages
What are the effects of Telazol in dogs at? Increased HR and cardiac output, and reduction in peripheral vascular resistance, contractility, and arterial blood pressure --- but after inital decrease, an increase of blood pressure
What are the effects of Telazol in cats? a decrease and then increase of BP and contractility
Why do we not usually see hemodynamic instability when using telazol? because we use it at lower doses
True or False, recovery with telazol in dogs is smoother than in cats FALSE
Why is telazol recovery in dogs poor? Because dogs metabolize zolazepam faster than tiletamine resulting in more residual dissociative effects
TRUE or FALSE, telazol can be used as a CRI FALSE
True or False, telazol as similar CI as ketamine? TRUE
A nonbarbiturate IV anesthetic that is cardiac safe with minimal respiratory depression Etomidate
What are the negative effects of Etomidate poor induction, hemolysis may develop due to hyperosmolar solution, and inhibited adrenal synthesis may result in lower cortisol, aldosterone, and corticosterone
what are side effects following induction of etomidate excitement, myoclonic activity, vomiting, pain on injection, retching, and gagging
Is etomidate suitable for CRI no
When is etomidate particularly useful? For neuro patients: it decreases intracranial pressure, cerebral oxygen metabolism, and cerebral blood flow
What is the most common neuroleptanalgesic combination Benzodiazepine + Opioid (midazolam or diazepam + hydromorphone, fentanyl, remifentanil)
When are neuroleptanalgesic combinations used? In sick and depressed animals
Methohexital ultrashort-acting oxybarbiturate, controlled substance, for IV induction in humans
when is methohexital used It used to be used regularly in Greyhounds before propofol
What are the effects of methohexital? cardiovascular depression, transient decrease in blood pressure, apnea, fast recovery accompanied by excitement and violent movement
Steroid anesthetic that could potentially replace propofol and thiopental Alfaxalone
What is the solubilizing agent for alfaxalone cyclodextrin
What will a fast induction with alfaxalone cause apnea and decrease in bp
True or False, alfaxalone possesses analgesic properties FALSE
TRUE or FALSE, alfaxalone is appropriate for use with CRI TRUE
Created by: Sara2420