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Monitor Anesthesia

Junior - Small Animal Anesthesia Lecture 2

QuestionAnswer
What does oxygen delivery depend on? ventilation, cardiac output, distribution of cardiac output, hemoglobin concentration and functional state of hemoglobin
when monitoring the heart, what do we focus on? rate, rhythm, heart sounds, and cardiac output
what can we determine when palpating peripheral pulses? strength and rhythm, can give some info on cardiac output, vascular tone, pulse rate, and rhthym
where do you palpate a pulse in dogs and cats? lingual (> in dogs), dorsal pedal, and femoral arteries
what can be determined by auscultating the heart? rate, valvular function, and strength
what does an electrocardiograph monitor? cardiac electrical function
what does capillary refill time tell us indication of peripheral perfusion and arteriolar vasomotor tone
TRUE or FALSE, dead animals have a normal or fast CRT TRUE
TRUE or FALSE, a prolonged CRT always indicates hypotension FALSE, also increased vascular resistance due to pain, excitement, or shock
What is the most commonly used clinical parameter to assess perfusion of tissues Arterial Blood Pressure
Heart Rate + Stroke Volume = Cardiac Output
Cardiac Output + Systemic Peripheral Resistance = Blood Pressure
True or False, arterial pressure decreases progressively with increasing depth of anesthesia during maintenance with inhalant anesthetics TRUE
Describe the indirect method of blood pressure monitoring: Digital palpation of peripheral pulse, Doppler with inflatable cuff and sphygmomanometer, or the Oscillometric method
How large should the cuff be when taking an indirect bp measurement? width of the cuff must be approx 40% limb circumference
What side should the cuff bladder be positioned? on the side of the artery
What results in an erroneously low bp reading? A cuff that is either too wide or applied too tight
What results in an erroneously high bp reading? A cuff that is either too small or too loose
TRUE or FALSE, bp measurement accuracy increases at low pressures FALSE --- decreases
What is the minimum acceptable systolic pressure? 80mmHg (60mmHg in cats due to technology consistently resulting in a low reading)
When is the oscillometric technique reliable? When patients are stable
What do we use to monitor the pulmonary system? Mucous membrane color, pulse oximeter, and capnography
Minute ventilation = respiratory rate x tidal volume
what are the two wavelengths of light measured with a pulse oximeter? Red light - 660nm (reduced Hb) , and Near infrared 940nm (oxygenated Hb)
R = (pulsating component 660 / constant component 660) / (pulsating component 940 / constant component 940)
Where should oxygen saturation be? 90%, preferably above 95%
At PaO2 values greater than _____ , O2Hb% is nearly independent of PaO2 90mmHg
What causes error in pulse oximetry? presence of dyshemoglobins, dyes and pigments, anemia, ambient light, pigmentation of tissue, electrocautery, and motion artifact
what does capnography provide? information about the patient's metabolism, cardiovascular system, and the adequacy of ventilation of the patient's lungs
Inspired pCO2 should be ____ and end-expired pCO2 should be ____ 0 and between 35 and 45mmHg
Created by: Sara2420