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Anesthesia Equipment

Junior - Small Animal Anesthesia Lecture 1

QuestionAnswer
Name the 4 component subsystems of the anesthesia gas machine High pressure system, low pressure system, breathing system, and scavenging system
What makes up the high pressure system pipeline and cylinder gas supplies
What is the low pressure system where the O2 and anesthetic gas mixture are blended
What is the breathing system where the anesthetic gas mixture is delivered to the patient
What is the scavenging system it collects excess gas from the breathing system and transports it to the waste gas evacuation system
What is the operating pressure of the pipeline gas supply 50-55psig
What is the direction of gas flow high pressure --> low pressure --> breathing system --> patient --> breathing system --> scavenging system --> waste gas evacuation
Characteristics of E tanks attached to anesthetic machine, full tanks contain 660L of gaseous O2, more expensive than H tanks
Characteristics of H tanks most common O2 source in private practice, usually stays in one room, pressure regulator and pressure gauge attached, full tank contains 6900L of gaseous O2, pressure proportional to contents
True or False, larger cylinders are more economical TRUE
Liquid Oxygen - characteristics better source of O2 when large quantities are needed, must be kept below -297F, only economical when high-volume demand
What is the pressure regulator regulates the pressure of the gas source as it enters the anesthetic machine to facilitate a constant pressure and flow to the flowmeter despite the continuous drop of pressure in the cylinder
What pressure does the cylinder pressure regulator reduce to ? approximately 45 psig
What forces the anesthesia machine to use pipeline gas when the machine is attached to both the pipeline gas supply an an open gas cylinder The pressure difference (pipeline at 50psig and cylinder at 45psig)
What is the oxygen flush valve? a valve to bypass the flowmeter and vaporizer and provide direct connection btw the high pressure and breathing systems
What rate is O2 delivered when the O2 flush valve is depressed? At 35-75 L/min
What are the flow control valves? They separate the high and low pressure systems, precise variable-orifice needle valves, adjust the flow of gas, should not be overtightened
What is the flow meter? measures the flow of gas emerging from the flow control valve, uses a float or bobbin, calibrated as a pair with the floats and flow tubes, must be vertical, read indicator at top of float or at middle of ball
What is the vaporizer function? facilitating the change of a liquid anesthetic into its vapor and adding a controlled amount of vapor to the fresh gas flow. It must produce a clinically safe concentration.
2 main types of vaporizers: precision and nonprecision
Characteristics of today's precision vaporizers: concentration calibrated or variable bypass, flow over, thermocompensation, out of circuit, agent specific, plenum
Describe a precision vaporizer contain both a vaporizing chamber (containing liquid anesthetic) and a bypass. A port of the O2 flow passes through the vaporization camber and another portion bypasses, then the gases remix to provide the appropriate concentration
Name the 4 types of breathing systems and an example of each Open: Chamber, Semi-Open: Jackson-Rees, Semi-closed: Circle, Closed: Circle
Describe a semi-closed system reservoir for anesthetic gas mixture, partial rebreathing of expired gas, Co2 absorption
What's the difference between low-flow and high-flow? Circle with fresh gas flow below 22ml/kg/min is low, higher than 22m/kg/min is high
Advantages of a closed circle economical, conserves heat and humidity, less pollution, can dx a hypermetabolic state, less danger of barotrauma
Disadvantages of a closed circle requires hard to learn knowledge of uptake, more attention necessary, inability to change concentrations quickly, danger of hypercarbia, accumulation of undesirable gases in the system
True or False, a closed system can be performed using a vaporizer in circuit or out of the circuit TRUE
Principle of CIRCLE rebreathing operation animal inspires from and expires to the circuit through the y-piece, gases directed by unidirectional valves, CO2 absorbed by sodalime or other absorbent, O2 consumed by patient replaced by fresh gas flow
Describe the Universal F-circuit can be used semi-closed or closed, common in practice, coaxial rebreathing system, can be used in animals up to 90kg, smaller tube inside bigger corrugated tubing is inspiratory and bigger is expiratory -- keeps gas warm
Advantages of F-circuit small size and light weight (convenient), allows heat and moisture to be retained in circuit (regulate body temp)
Disadvantages of F-circuit smaller tubing creates resistance in large dogs, elongation over time of corrugated tubing creates dead space, reversed attachment causes warming benefit to be less effective, difficult to clean
Advantages of vaporizer out of circuit (VOC) output not affected by changes in patient ventilation, assisted ventilation will not greatly increase inspired anesthetic concentration, known anesthetic concentration delivered
Disadvantages of VOC expensive, slow changes in anesthetic concentration
Advantages of vaporizer in circuit (VIC) cheap, economical w/ less anesthetic used, less pollution, more humidified inspired gas
Disadvantages of VIC inspired anesthetic concetnration varies with changes in carrier gas flow rate, temp, use of PPV, and patient's ventilation, anesthetic concentration in circuit is unknown
What is the Stephen's Anesthetic Machine Designed for closed circuit model with a glass VIC on the inspiratory side, 2 lime canisters, and 2 unidirectional valves placed closed to one another, it runs a high concentration of anesthetic with low flow O2
How is CO2 eliminated in non-rebreathing systems? high fresh gas flow
When are non-rebreathing systems indicated? Patients <7-10kg: because they provide less dead space and less or no resistance
How can you successfully use a circle system on small patients? Small Y piece and assisted ventilation
Created by: Sara2420