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Vet Tech Terms Ch 10

The Respiratory System

Where does External Respiration occur? Occurs in the lungs, the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide between the air inhaled into the lungs and the blood flowing thru the pulmonary capillaries
Where does Internal Respiration occur? Occurs all over the body, exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide between the blood in the capillaries all over the body and all the cells and tissues of the body
Which structures constitute the Upper Respiratory Tract? All the structures outside the lungs: nose, mouth, pharynx, epiglottis, and larynx
Which structures constitute the Lower Respiratory Tract? All the structures within the lungs: trachea, bronchial tree, and lungs
Where are the Lateral Ventricles located? Blind pouches on each side of the larynx that project laterally into the space between the vocal cords and the vestibular folds (false vocal cords), these are often involved in treating a condition in horses called roaring.
3 Functions of the Larynx 1.) voice production 2.) prevention of inhaling foreign material 3.) control of airflow to and from the lungs
What does Surfactant do? Helps reduce the surface tension (the attraction of water molecules to each other), this prevents the alveoli from collapsing as air moves in and out during breathing
What is Negative Intrathoracic Pressure and what does it do? The pressure within the thorax is negative with respect to atmospheric pressure, so a partial vacuum exists in the thorax that pulls the lungs out against the thoracic wall. Also aides in return of blood to the heart
Which muscles are the Inspiratory Muscles? Diaphragm and External Intercostal Muscles
Which muscles are the Expiratory Muscles? Abdominal and Internal Intercostal Muscles
What is the Tidal Volume of air? The volume of air inspired and expired during one breath
What is the Minute Volume of air and how is it figured out? Volume of air inspired and expired in one minute. Multiply the tidal volume by the number of breaths per minute
What is the Residual Volume of air? The volume of air remaining in the lungs after maximum expiration
What is the Mechanical System responsible for? Sets the routine inspiration and expiration limits
What does the Chemical System do? Monitors the levels of certain substances in the blood and directs adjustments in breathing if they get out of balance Monitors the levels of certain substances in the blood and directs adjustments in breathing if they get out of balance
What is the Syrinx? Sound producing organ in birds, avian version of the larynx
What is the function of the Respiratory system? the diffusion of gases between the atmosphere and the cells of the body
What is Ventilation? the intake of fresh air
What are the combining forms for nose? nas/o, rhin/o
What are Nares? paired external openings of the respiratory tract
What are Endotherms? warm blooded animals
What do the Nasal Turbinates do? warm, humidify, and filter inspired air
What is a Nasogastric Tube? tube that passes thru the nose down to the stomach
What is the rostral part of the nostrils and nasal cavity termed? Vestibular
What is the combining form meaning partition? Sept/o
What is mucus? slimelike substance that is composed of glandular secretions, salts, cells, and leukocytes
What is responsible for the sense of smell? Olfactory receptors
What is the lymphatic tissue that protects the nasal cavity and upper throat? Tonsils
What is a Sinus? Air filled or Fluid filled space
What are the names of the sinuses? Frontal, Maxillary, Sphenoid, Palatine, Lacrimal, and Conchal
What is the Pharynx? Throat
Where is the Nasopharynx? the portion of the throat posterior to the nasal cavity and above the soft palate
Where is the Oropharynx? the portion of the throat between the soft palette and the epiglottis
Where is the Laryngopharynx? the portion of the throat below the epiglottis that opens into the voicebox and esophagus
What does the Epiglottis do? acts like a lid and covers the larynx during swallowing
What is the Larynx and where is it? voice box, located between the pharynx and trachea
Where is the Glottis? the space between the vocal cords
What is another name for the Trachea? Windpipe
What branches off the Trachea? Bronchi
What are Alveoli? air sacs in which most of the gas exchange occurs
What prevents the collapse of the Alveoli during expiration? Surfactant
What is the main organ of Respiration? Lung
What are the functional elements of an organ? Parenchyma
What is the term for the framework for an organ? Stroma
What is the term for the region between the lungs? Mediastinum
What is the membrane sac encasing each lung? Pleura
What is the inner layer of the membrane lining the outside of the lung? Visceral Pleura
What is the outer layer of membrane lining the inner wall of the thoracic cavity? Parietal Pleura
What is the potential space between the parietal and visceral pleura? Pleural Space
What separates the thoracic and peritoneal cavities? Diaphragm
What is the term for drawing in a breath? Inhalation or Inspiration
What is the term for releasing a breath? Exhalation or Expiration
What is the term for absence of breathing? Apnea
What is the term for difficult or labored breathing? Dyspnea
What is an abnormally slow respiratory rate? Bradypnea
What is an abnormally rapid respiratory rate? Tachypnea
What is an abnormal increase in rate and depth of respiration? Hyperpnea
What is abnormally slow or shallow respiration? Hypopnea
What is abnormal rapid deep breathing? Hyperventilation
What is Agonal Breathing? Respiration near death or during extreme suffering
What is an inadequate supply of oxygen to tissue despite an adequate blood supply? Hypoxia
What refers to excessive amounts of carbon dioxide in the blood? Hypercapnia
What refers to decreased levels of carbon dioxide in the blood? Hypocapnia
What is Respiratory Acidosis? An excessive amount of CO2 in the blood due to decreased ventilation causing a lower pH level in the blood
What is Respiratory Alkalosis? CO2 levels are abnormally low due to increased ventilation
What suggests fluid accumulation? Sounds of popping bubbles termed bubbling
What is Crepitation or Rales? Fine or Course interrupted crackling noises coming from collapsed or fluid filled alveoli during inspiration
What is Respiratory Rate? The number of Respirations per minute
What are high pitched whistling sounds heard during inspiration? Wheezing or Rhonchi
What is Minimal Volume? Amount of air left in alveoli after the lung collapses
What is Vital Capacity? The largest amount of air that can be moved in the lung
What is a Bronchoscopy? A visual exam of the bronchus
What is tapping body surfaces with an instrument or a finger in order to determine density by the sounds heard? Percussion
What is the thick mucus secreted by the respiratory lining? Phlegm
What is a Spirometer? Instrument used to measure air taken in and out of the lungs
What is a Thoracocentesis? Puncture of the chest wall with a needle to obtain fluid from the pleural cavity
What is the absence of oxygen? Anoxia
What is Asphyxiation? Interruption of breathing resulting in lack of oxygen
What is Aspiration? Inhalation of a foreign substance into the upper respiratory tract
What is incomplete expansion of the alveoli; collapse of a lung? Atelectasis
What is inflammation of the Bronchi? Bronchitis
What is the abnormal condition in horses in which expiratory flow is slowed, heaves? COPD Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
What is an abnormal opening in the diaphragm that allows part of the abdominal organs to migrate into the chest cavity? Diaphragmatic Hernia
What is a chronic lung disease caused by enlargement of the alveoli or changes in the alveolar wall? Emphysema
What is Epistaxis? Nosebleed
What is spitting of blood from the lower respiratory tract? Hemoptysis
What is an accumulation of blood in the chest cavity? Hemothorax
What is the inability to produce sound? Aphonation
What is an abnormal accumulation of fluid in the pleural space? Pleural Effusion
What is an abnormal condition of the lung that usually involves inflammation and congestion of the lung? Pneumonia
What is congestion? Abnormal accumulation of fluid
What is an abnormal accumulation of air or gas in the chest cavity? Pneumothorax
What is the accumulation of fluid in the lung tissue? Pulmonary Edema
What is inflammation of the nasal mucous membranes? Rhinitis
What is Rhinorrhea? Nasal drainage
What is the term for upper respiratory disease in rabbits? Snuffles
Created by: Misty Lynn



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