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Vet Tech Terms Ch 8

The CardioVascular System

What is the Mediastinum and what does it contain? The space between the 2 pleural cavities that contain the lungs, also called the intrapleural space; trachea, esophagus, heart, major blood vessels
What is the Pericardium and its two layers? The outer layer of the heart; two layers are the outer fibrous and inner serous (also has 2 layers, the inner visceral (epicardium) and the outer parietal)
What is the Myocardium? The thickest layer of heart muscle found inside the pericardial sac
Where is the thin membranous lining called the Endocardium located? Between the myocardium and the chambers of the heart
Where is the tricuspid located? Between the right atrium and right ventricle
What is Systole? cardiac contraction
Where are the auricles of the heart? the largest and most visible parts of the atria, they perch upon the base of the heart like floppy ears
What is the job of the Chordae Tendineae? prevent the valve flaps from bending back into the atrium and connect the free edges of the valvular flaps to the papillary muscles
What is the moderator band? originates at the interventricular septum and connects to the outside wall of the right ventricle to give the right ventricle additional structural support
What are the aortic and pulmonary valves both called? Semilunar valves
What is the sinoatrial node and where is it? the pacemaker for the heart located in the right atrium
How does the SA node generate an electrical current? by movement of cations across the outer membrane of its cells
What is Polarization? pumping cations out of a cell resulting in the outside of the cell having a more positive charge then the inside
What is Depolarization? when gates in the cell wall are opened, cations flow into the cell to equalize the charge on both sides of the cell membrane and produces an electrical current causing the heart muscle to contract
Where do the Bundle of His and the Purkinje fibers go? The Bundle of His fibers travel down the interventricular septum to the apical end of the left and right ventricles and the Purkinje fibers pick up from there and go up into the ventricular myocardium
What is the foramen ovale? a lung bypass between the left and right atria in the unborn fetus
What is the ductus arteriosus? a lung bypass between the pulmonary artery and the aorta in unborn fetuses
What is the ductus venosus? a liver bypass between the umbilical cord and the caudal vena cava
What is cardiac output and how is it determined? the amount of blood that leaves the heart; stroke volume X heart rate = cardiac output
What is stroke volume? the amount of blood ejected with each cardiac contraction
What does an ECG/EKG measure? the electrical activity of the heart
What does the P wave represent? depolarization of the atria
What does the QRS complex represent? depolarization of the ventricles
What does the T wave represent? repolarization of the ventricles
Which vein may be used for venipuncture in ruminants and rodents? Coccygeal vein, it runs along the midline of the tail
Which vein in the thoracic limb may be commonly used to gain venous access in dogs and cats? Cephalic vein, it runs between the elbow and the carpus on the cranio-medial aspect of the forearm
Which vein in the pelvic limb may be used for venipunture in dogs and cats? Femoral vein (more commonly used in cats runs along the medial aspect of hind limb) or Saphenous vein (more commonly used in dogs runs along the lateral aspect of the hind limb)
Which vein is commonly used for venipuncture in nearly all veterinary species both large and small? Jugular vein, runs along the ventral aspect on both sides of the neck
Created by: Misty Lynn



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