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Vet Tech Terms Ch 7

The Muscular System

What does Skeletal Muscle do and how is it controlled? controlled by the conscious mind and moves the bones of the skeleton so the animal can move around
What does Cardiac Muscle do and how is it controlled? found only in the heart and it starts the heart beating long before an animal is born and keeps it up until the animal dies, under involuntary control
Where is Smooth Muscle found and what does it do? found all over the body like the eyes, air passageways, GI tract, bladder, blood vessels and reproductive tract; carries out most of the internal movements that the body needs to maintain itself in good working order; involuntary control
Which type of muscle has Multiple Cell Nuclei? Skeletal Muscle
What are the Cell Shapes for each type of muscle? Skeletal- long thin fibers Cardiac- branched Smooth- spindle
What do Tendons do? attach muscle to bone
What are Aponeuroses? broad sheets of fibrous connective tissue that connect muscle to bone or muscle to other muscles
Where is the Origin of the Muscle? the muscle's attachment site that is more stable and moves less than the other, it does not move much when the muscle contracts
Where is the Insertion of the Muscle? the site that undergoes most of the movement when a muscle contracts
What is a Prime Mover or Agonist? a muscle or muscle group that directly produces a desired movement
What is the Antagonist? a muscle or muscle group that directly opposes the action of a prime mover
What is a Synergist? a muscle that contracts at the same time as a prime mover and assists it in carrying out its action
What do Fixator Muscles do? stabilize joints to allow other movements to take place
What is a Sarcolemma? muscle cell membrane
What is a Sarcomere? basic contracting unit of skeletal muscle
What are Neuromuscular Junctions? sites where the ends of motor nerve fibers connect to muscle fibers
What is the All or Nothing Principal? an individual muscle fiber either contracts completely when it receives a nerve impulse or it does not contract at all
What is Myoglobin? its like hemoglobin for muscles, it can store and release large quantities of oxygen
Describe the Structure of Muscles Groups of Myofilaments make up a Myofibril. Groups of Myofibrils make up a Muscle Fiber which is also the called the Muscle Cell, and groups of these make are called Fascicles and make up a muscle
Describe the Connective Tissue Layers of Muscle: Groups of muscle fascicles are surrounded by Epimysium and each individual fascicle is bound together by Perimysium, each individual fiber within the fascicle is surrounded by Endomysium
What is the A Band? made of thick Myosin filaments
What is the I Band? made of thin Actin filaments
What is the Z Line? dark line in the center of the I band, it is the attachment site for the actin filaments
What is a Sarcomere? the area from one Z line to the next Z line
What is a Motor Unit? one nerve fiber and all the muscle fibers it innervates
What do Cross Bridges do? when stimulated to contract, small levers that ratchet back and forth and pull the actin filaments on both sides toward the center of the myosin filaments
What is Aerobic Metabolism? as long as the oxygen supply is adequate to keep up with the energy needs of the fiber and the maximum amount of energy is extracted from each glucose fiber
What is Anaerobic Metabolism? the need for oxygen exceeds the available supply and muscle fibers must shift to non oxygen dependent metabolism to produce the energy required for continued activity
What is Lactic Acid? a by product of incomplete glucose breakdown resulting from anaerobic metabolism, it can accumulate in the muscle tissue and cause discomfort
What does Creatine Phosphate do?s its the "battery charger" that converts ADP back to ATP
What are Intercalated Disks? fasten the cells together and transmit impulses from cell to cell to allow large groups of cardiac muscle cells to contract in a coordinated manner
Created by: Misty Lynn