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Vet Tech Terms Ch 6

The Skeletal System

What are Osteocytes? Bone Cells
What do Osteoblasts do? Produce bone and secrete the matrix
What is the Bone Matrix made of? its soft and composed of collegen fibers embedded in a gelatin-like ground substance made of protein and complex carbohydrates
What is Ossification? hardening the bone matrix by infiltrating it with calcium and phosphate crystals
What is Lacunae? spaces in the ossified bone matrix
What is Canaliculi? threadlike, cellular processes in tiny channels through the bone that bring blood to the osteocytes living in the lacunae
What is hematopoiesis? blood cell formation
What is Cancellous bone? spongy bone inside the bone where the bone marrow is
What is Compact bone? makes up the shaft of long bones and the outside layers of all bone
What are Osteoclasts? eat bone, allow the body to withdraw calcium from the bones when it is needed to raise the calcium in the blood
What are Volkmann's Canals? tiny channels in the bone matrix for blood supply that come in at right angles to the long axis of the bone and right angles to the Haversian Canals
What are Nutrient Foramina? large channels that carry blood in and out of the bone and allow large blood vessels, lymph vessels, and nerves to enter large bones
What is Endochondral Bone Formation? the body first creates a cartilage "template" that is subsequently replaced by bone
What is the Diaphysis of a bone? bone shaft
What are the Epiphyses of bones? ends of bones
What is Intramembraneous Bone Formation? only occurs in certain skull bones, bone forms in the fibrous tissue membranes that cover the brain in the developing fetus
Which bones are classified as Long Bones? bones that are longer then they are wide such as bones of the limbs
Which bones are classified as Short Bones? bones that are shaped like small cubes or marshmallows such as the carpals and tarsals
Which bones are classified as Flat Bones? bones that are relatively thin and flat such as skull bones and scapulae
Which bones are classified as Irregular Bones? bones that do not fit into the other 3 categories such as vertebrae and sesamoids
What does Red Bone Marrow do? forms blood cells
What is Yellow Bone Marrow consist of? primarily adipose connective tissue and it does not produce blood cells but if needed it can revert back to red bone marrow and make additional blood cells
What is an Articular Surface of a bone? smooth areas of compact bone where bones come into contact with each other to form joints
What is a Condyle? a large, round articular surface such as the distal ends of the humerus, femur and occipital bone
What is the Head of a bone? a somewhat spherical articular surface on the proximal end of a long bone and united with the main shaft of the bone by a narrowed region called the neck
What is a Facet? a flat articular surface
What is a Process? includes all the lumps, bumps, and other projections on a bone
What is a Foramen? a hole in a bone
What is a Fossa? a depressed or sunken area on the surface of a bone
What is included in the Axial Skeleton? bones of the head and trunk
What is included in the Appendicular Skeleton? bones of the limbs
What is the Visceral Skeleton? bones formed in the viscera or soft organs such as the os cordis (bone in cattle hearts), os penis, and os rostri (bone in pig snouts)
What are the 11 bones of the Cranium? 2 Frontal Bones, 2 Interparietal Bones, 2 Parietal Bones, 2 Temporal Bones, 1 Occipital Bone, 1 Ethmoid Bone, 1 Sphenoid Bone
Where are the Intraparietal Bones located? between the occipital bone and the 2 parietal bones
What are the 3 bones of the ear? the ossicles: incus, malleus, stapes
Where are the Incisive Bones located? they house the upper teeth in front of the maxillae
What does Dolichocephalic mean? long faced dog
What do the Pterygoid Bones do? support part of the lateral walls of the pharynx
Name the bones of the Thoracic Limb: Scapula, Humerus, Radius, Ulna, Carpals, Metacarpals, Phalanges
Name the bones of the Pelvic Limb: Pelvis (Ilium, Ischium, Pubis), Femur, Tibia, Fibula, Tarsals, Metatarsals, Phalanges
What makes up the Antebrachium? Radius and Ulna of the forearm
In horses, what does the Carpus refer to? Knee
What is the Cannon Bone in Horses? the one large metacarpal bone they have in each front foot since they only have one digit
What are the Splint Bones in Horses? two small metacarpals that run along side the Cannon Bone, they do not support any weight as they only go about half way down the Cannon Bone
How many Metacarpal Bones do Cattle have? 2 but they are fused into a single bone
What is the Horse Digit composed of? 3 Phalanges and 3 Sesamoid Bones, distal middle and proximal phalanges, 2 proximal sesamoids and a distal sesamoid aka navicular bone
Where is the Fetlock Joint in Horses? where the 2 proximal sesamoids, proximal phalanx and distal end of metacarpal meet
Do Cattle have dewclaws? yes. They have 4 digits on each limb, the 3rd and 4th support weight and the 2nd and 5th are vestiges termed dewclaws
Where is the Dewclaw on cats and dogs? 1st digit
What is the Ungual Process? part of the distal phalanx that is surrounded by the claw
What is the Stifle Joint? distal femur, patella, and proximal tibia (knee)
What are Fabellae? 2 small sesamoids located in the proximal gastrocnemius muscle in dogs and cats just behind the femoral condyles
What is the Hock? Tibia articulates with the 4 rows of tarsal bones (ankle)
What is Synarthroses? Fibrous joints that are immovable like the skull
What is Amphiarthroses? Cartilaginous joints that are capable of only a slight rocking motion like vertebrae
What is Diarthroses? Synovial joints that are freely movable like the shoulder and stifle
What are Ginglymus Joints? a type of synovial joint; hinge joints like the elbow and occipitoatlantis joint
What are Athrodial Joints? a type of synovial joint; gliding joints like the carpus
What are Trochoid Joints? a type of synovial joint; pivot joints, the only possible movement is rotation such as the atlantoaxial joint
What are Spheroidal Joints? a type of synovial joint; ball and socket joints like the shoulder and hip
What do bones do besides support? Protect vital organs and tissues, act as levers for skeletal muscle to move the body, store minerals, and form blood cells
What are the 3 types of bone cells? Osteoblasts (builders), Osteoclasts (destroyers), and Osteocytes (bone cells)
What are the main differences between cancellous bone and compact bone? Cancellous bone consists of tiny spicules of bone randomly arranged with lots of space in between (spongy appearance) and Compact bone is heavy and dense, it is composed of tiny tightly compacted cylinders of bone
Name the animal skull bones that make up the exterior cranium: Frontal, Interparietal, Parietal, Temporal, and Occipital
Name the animal skull bones that make up the interior cranium: Sphenoid, Ethmoid, and Rostral
Name the external animal facial bones: Incisive, Nasal, Maxillary, Lacrimal, Zygomatic, and Mandible
Name the internal animal facial bones: Palatine, Pterygoid, Vomer, and Turbinates
Which digit is the dewclaw on the front leg of a dog? Metacarpal 1
What is the difference between a tendon and a ligament? Tendons join muscle to muscle, Ligaments join muscle to bone
Created by: Misty Lynn



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