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Vet Tech Terms Ch 2

Chemical Basis for Life

What is Matter? Anything that occupies space and has mass
What are Elements and how many are there? Cannot be divided by ordinary chemical processes into another substance, there are 112 elements and 92 occur in nature
What is a Chemical Symbol and where is is derived? Way to refer to an element which is derived from its name in English, Latin, or Greek
What is an Atom? The smallest unit of an element that retains the unique properties of the element, made of smaller subunits called protons, neutrons, and electrons, but when isolated these subunits do not retain the element properties
What is the Atomic Nucleus? Center of the atom where the protons and neutrons are grouped together
What is the Atomic Weight? The weight of the protons and neutrons, electrons are so tiny that their weight does not contribute to the atomic mass
What is the Atomic Number? Number of protons in the atom
How do atoms become Ions? An atom with a positive or negative charge, it gets this by either gaining or losing an electron, cations are positive and anions are negative
What are Isotopes? Atoms of the same element that contain different numbers of neutrons
What do Radioactive Isotopes do? Spontaneously emits particles of energy at a constant rate and thereby changes into a stable, non-radioactive element
Where is the Electron Shell? The area around the nucleus where the electrons have their most likely positions
What is a Molecule? 2 or more atoms that are joined by chemical bonds
What is a Compound? When atoms of different elements join together
What is a Chemical Bond? The way that atoms join together to form molecules
What is a Polar Molecule? Molecule has oppositely charged ends
What is the difference between an Ionic Bond and a Covalent Bond? An Ionic Bond is formed when electrons are transferred from one atom to the next, a Covalent Bond is the bond formed when atoms share electrons
What is Electrostatic Attraction? When 2 atoms are drawn together bc of their opposite charges (- &+)
What is a Hydrogen Bond? The weak ionic bond between hydrogen atoms already covalently bonded in a molecule, acts to stabilize the solution
What is a Chemical Reaction? The forming and breaking of chemical bonds
What is a Chemical Equation and what does it include? The way the reaction is described in writing, it shows the molecular formula of the reactants and the products as well as the direction of the action
What is a Synthesis Reaction? Making a new and more complex chemical from multiple, simpler chemicals
What is a Decomposition Reaction? A complex chemical is broken down into its simpler parts
What is an Exchange Reaction and what is it a combination of? Certain atoms are exchanged between molecules, it is a combination of a synthesis and decomposition reaction
What is Activation Energy? The energy required for the reaction to happen
Describe a Catalyst Special proteins that hold the reactants together so they may interact, it is not destroyed or used up by the reactants, and the reaction speed is increased
Simply put, what are Enzymes? Special catalyst proteins
What are Inorganic Compounds, how are they bonded, and what are some examples? Do not contain hydrocarbon groups (hydrogen and carbon bonded together) and often have ionic bonding such as water, salt, acids and bases
What are Organic Compounds, how are they bonded, and what are some examples? Molecules that contain hydrocarbon groups and usually are covalently bonded such as carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids
What is the Functional Group of an atom? A group of atoms that defines the properties of the organic molecule
What is Solute? The chemicals added to water
What is a Solution? The result of the chemicals plus the water
What is the universal Solvent? Water
What does Hydrophilic mean? Chemicals that dissolve or mix well in water
What does Hydrophobic mean? Molecules that do not mix well with water
What is Salt? Mineral compounds that have ionic bonds and they are the principal form of minerals that enter and are stored in the body
How are Acids bonded and what do they release? Ionically bonded substances that when added to water, freely release hydrogen ions
How are Bases bonded and what do they release? Alkaline compounds that are Ionically bonded, also ionize in water, but release a hydroxyl ion (OH-) instead of a hydrogen ion (H+)
What is measured on a pH Scale and how? Acidity and alkalinity are measured on a pH scale with 1 being the most acidic and 14 being the most alkaline
What are Buffers and what do they do? Weak acids and bases that do not completely ionize in water, they act to keep the pH neutral where chemical reactions take place
What is a Macromolecule? Long, complex molecule, often with repeating units
What are Carbohydrates used for? Molecules that are used for energy, storage of energy, and cellular structures such as table sugar, starch, and cellulose
What is a Monosaccharide? the simplest form of a carbohydrate,a simple sugar such as glucose
How are Disaccharides formed? Formed by the sythesis reaction of joining 2 monosaccharides
What is Dehydration Synthesis? Extracting the water from the saccharides that is created during the synthesis reaction
How do cells use Anabolism? Cells use sythesis reactions to build molecules needed for cellular functioning
What is Hydrolysis? Using water to break down molecules
How are Polysaccharides formed and what is an example of one? Combinations of many monosaccharides all joined by dehydration synthesis, examples are starch and glycogen
What is a Glycoprotein and what does it do? A macromolecule composed of a carbohydrate attached to a protein, helps for the cell walls and form connective tissues such as collagen
What are Lipids used for and what are the 4 classes of them? Used in the body for energy and are stored in fat for future energy needs. 4 classes: neutral fats, phospholipids, steroids, and eicosanoids
What are Neutral Fats and what do they do? Also called triglycerides or simply just fats, store energy, insulate body tissues, cushions, and protects the body
How is a Triglyceride constructed and what is it? It contains 3 fatty acids and a glycerol molecule and is a type of fat in your blood and can cause heart disease
How is Glycerol constructed and what does it do? A sweet tasting modified 3-carbon simple sugar and has an ability to hold on to water and is an important part of glycolysis which produces ATP
How is a Fatty Acid constructed and what does it do? A chain of carbon atoms with one or two hydrogen atoms attached to each carbon by single or double bonds and they produce essential chemical activities that keep you alive
Describe the bonds of a Saturated Fatty Acid When all the bonds in the hydrocarbon chain are single bonds and as many hydrogen atoms as possible are attached to the carbon, this biggest cause of bad cholesterol and is found in animal products like butter, cheese, and fatty meats
What makes an Unsaturated Fatty Acid and is it good or bad? When there are some double bonds between the carbon and hydrogen atoms and are used to lower cholesterol in place of saturated fats such as olive oil, canola oil and fish
What is a Lipoprotein composed of and what is it used for? A macromolecule composed of proteins and lipids and are used to transport fats in the body
Describe Phospholipids Similar to triglycerides in that they have a glycerol backbone, main component of cell membranes bc of the hydrophilic heads and hydrophobic tails, they also form the myelin sheath of nerve cells
What are steroids and what form do they take? Lipids that take the form of 4 interlocking hydrocarbon rings like cholesterol
What are Eicosanoids and why are they important? Lipids formed from a 20-carbon fatty acid and a ring structure, and are the bodys cellular check and balance system, they are important bc they control the inflammation process and without them the body couldnt heal itself
Name 3 types of Eicosanoids and what they do Prostaglandins mediate inflammation Thromboxane mediates platelet function Leukotrienes mediate bronchoconstriction and increased mucus production
What are proteins used for? Cell structures and structural body tissues, controlling chemical reactions, regulating growth, and defending the body from invaders.
What are proteins made of and what do they do? organic molecules made mostly of carbon, oxygen, hydrogen and nitrogen; they speed up all reactions and transport ions into and out of the cell and around the body
What are the building blocks of protein? Amino acids linked together like the cars of a train
What does the sequence of the amino acids represent? Its ordered by the DNA and defines the function of the protein
What is a peptide bond? The carboxyl group of one amino acid links with the amino group of another amino acid
What is a dipeptide? A short chain of two amino acids
What is a polypeptide? A chain of 10 or more amino acids linked together but after 100 it is called a protein
What are Structural Proteins? water insoluable proteins used to add strength to cells and tissues like collagen
What are Enzymes? proteins that catalyze or speed up chemical reactions without being destroyed or altered
What is a Substrate? the substance the enzyme acts upon
What are the 2 classes of Nucleic Acids and what are they made of? DNA and RNA; composed of carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, nitrogen, and phosphorus
Why is DNA important? it contains all the instructions needed by the cell to build proteins
What does RNA do? transfers the instructions out of the nucleus and into the cytoplasm of the cell and builds the proteins
What is a Nucleotide? molecular building blocks of nucleic acid, composed of nitrogen base, sugar, and a phosphate.
What are the different Nitrogen Bases? Adenine, Guanine, Cytosine, Uracil, Thymine A-T, A-U, G-C
What is Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP)? molecule that stores the energy created by glucose being broken down into monosaccharides
What is Adenosine Diphosphate (ADP)? when ATP loses a phosphate, it becomes this
Name 3 types of Chemical Reactions: Synthesis, Decomposition, and Exchange
What type of Chemical Reaction does Catabolism use? Decomposition Reaction
Which compound is necessary for life? Organic or Inorganic? both
What are the 3 types of Inorganic molecules that are important for life? Water, Salts, and Acids/Bases
What are the 4 types of Organic molecules that are important for life? Carbohydrates, Lipids, Proteins, and Nucleic Acids
Why is water so necessary for life? Water is the universal solvent, an ideal transport medium, has a high heat capacity and vaporization, and is used for lurication
What is an electrolyte? substances that have the ability to transmit an electrical charge such as sodium, potassium and calcium
How does a weak acid or base act as a buffer? it does not allow excessive hydrogen or hydroxyl ions to accumulate
What 3 elements are found in all carbohydrates and all Lipids? Carbon, Hydrogen, and Oxygen
Which process joins multiple simple sugars? Dehydration Synthesis
What element is found in all proteins but not in carbohydrates or lipids? Nitrogen
How does an ATP molecule supply a cell with energy to do work? As a nutrient is catabolized such as glucose, the energy created is stored in ATP molecules. ATP stores this energy in the bonds between its phosphate groups. When these bonds are broken, that energy is released from the ATP molecule
Created by: Misty Lynn



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