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What are cyrstalloid solutions? Contain electrolyte and nonelectrolyte substances Used often and low cost Correction of dehydration, tx of shock, vehicle for IV drugs Adverse effects: overhydration
Physiologic Saline (Normal Saline, 0.9%NaCl) Crystalloid DO NOT USE IN HEART DZ Pts Bathe tissues during sx to keep from drying out Increases plasma volume and correct Na deficiency
Lactated Ringers Solution (LRS) Crystalloid Lactate converted to bicarbonate to act as a buffer against acidosis Do not administer with blood Not good for critical pts
Dextrose 5% in Water (D5W) Crystalloid Supplements calories Not as maintanence or SQ Pure water=metabolized to CO2 and H2O
Normasol-M in 5% Dextrose Crystalloid Balanced maintanence fluid Acetate as buffer
Plasmalyte-M in 5% Dextrose Crystalloid Balanced replacement/maintanence solution Acetate and lactate as buffers
What is a colloid solution? Large molecular weight particles that cannot cross the cell membrane, confined to vascular space, expand plasma volume. Use if cerebral or pulmonary edema may be a complication. Tx of hypovolemic shock
Dextrans Colloid Polysacharride solution May cause allergic rxn or clotting deficits Not for maintanence or long term use
Hetastarch (Hespan) Colloid Startch $$$$$$
Hypertonic Solutions (Hypertonic Saline) Similar to colloids Tx of shock and endotoxemia, burns, pancreatitis, major sx Adverse effects: clotting deficiency, allergic rxns
What are some fluid additives? Sodium bicarbonate, KCl, 50% Dextrose
Na Bicarbonate (Baking Soda) Corrects metabolic acidosis, hypercalcemia, hyperkalemia
KCl Tx or prevention of K deficits Adverse effects: hyperkalemia Must know serum K levels before tx
What are the causes of hypokalemia? Anorexia, diuresis, diarrhea
50% Dextrose Caloric supplement We add it other solutions to make % desired C1V1=C2V2
When are oral electrolyte solutions used? Mild to moderate electrolyte replenishment
Created by: lsondermann