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7th Chapter

Muscular System

What is the muscular system? It is the muscles and accessory structures.
What does the muscular system provide and produce? It provides movement and mobility.
What does the muscular system include? It includes the skeleton muscles.
What does the muscular system not include? It does not include the cardiac or smooth muscle.
Muscle cells are specialized for what? Contraction.
The fibers do what to produce movement? Shorten.
Each muscle is made up of what? Thousands of individual muscle cells AKA fibers.
The brain recruits higher number of ______ based on need. Fibers.
What shape are the tendons? Usually round.
Aponeuriosa is what? It is a flat, sheet like tendon.
What are the tendons made of? Fibrous connective tissue.
The tendons are the continuation of what that covers the muscle? Deep fascia.
The tendons merge with periosteum to do what? Anchor to bone.
What is the origin? It is where the muscle originates.
Usually the origin is the more stationary of the 2 ends and is usually more ________. Proximal.
What is the opposite end of the origin? (across a joint from the origin usually) Insertion
What are the names of the muscle relationships? 1. Protagonist. 2. Antagonist.3. Synergist
What is the description of protagonist? The primary muscle (prime mover) that brings the desired movement.
What is the muscle that does the opposite of the desired movement? Antagonist.
What is the description of synergist? Secondary muscles, that bring about the desired movement.
What lobes of the brain initiate the signal to the muscle in the promoter and motor areas of the cortex? The frontal lobes.
What does the cerebellum do? It creates movements.
Sensation of the muscle is sensed the what lobes? The parietal lobes.
What are the parietal lobes for? They are for conscious input and the cerebellum for subconscious input.
What is muscle tone? A slight contraction of muscle that is present most of the time,
Does muscle tone change with position? Yes. Example: postural muscles increase when standing vs. lying
What is Thermogensis? Heat production form the normal muscle metabolism.
What causes theremogensis? Friction and decomposition reaction.
Thermogensis is increased with what? Increased activity.
What is Another name for Muscle sense? Propriception.
Muscle sense is the awareness of what? Position of the muscle and thus joint.
Muscle sense is sensed by what? Stretch receptors. (muscle spinal fibers, proprioceptors, GTOs)
What can muscle sense detect? Changes in the length of the muscle.
What is the primary energy source for muscle contraction? ATP.
Is ATP long or short lasting? Short.
What is the secondary energy source in muscle contraction. Creatine phosphate.
What is the function of creatine phosphate? It breaks down into creatine and phosphate to release energy to make more ATP.
Most creatine is converted back to creatine phosphate but some of it is converted to what? Creatinine which is a nitrogenous waste product.
The most abundant energy source for muscle contraction is? Glycogyn.
what does glycogyn do? It breaks down into glucose which goes through cellular respiration.
What is the break down of cellular respiration? Glucose + O2 -CO2 + H2O + ATP + heat
What are the two O2 sources in cellular respiration. Hemoglobin and Myoglobin.
What does Hemoglobin Contain? Contains iron which binds the O2.
What does myoglobin contain? Contains iron which binds the O2. and it makes the muscle red.
What carries O2 in the blood? Hemoglobin.
What carries O2 in the muscle? Myoglobin.
What is the O2 debt? When O2 need is greater than the blood supply.
What is hypoxia? Deficiency of O2.
When glucose is converted into lactic acid in what? In anaerobic respiration.
Lactic acid is converted into pyruvic in the _____. Liver
What is recovery O2 uptake. When breathing to supply the oxygen required by the liver to detoxify lactic acid.
Why does breathing slow gradually after stopping exercise? Recovery O2 uptake.
Muscle fiber is what? Microscopic structure. (Muscle cell)
What is the motor nerve ending at each muscle fiber? Neuromusular Junction.
The enlarged end of the motor neuron is the what? The axon terminal
Some of the names for the neuromuscular junction are? Axon terminal, synaptic knob and motor end plate
The neuromuscular junction has how many fibers? One each.
The axon terminal contains sacs of what? Acetylcholine of ACh
The cell membrane of the muscle fiber is called? Sarcolemma
The sarcolemma contains __________ sites for ACh? Receptor
The sarcolemma containes cholinesterase that ___________ Ach. Deactivates
This is the junction between the axon terminal and the muscle fiber sarcolemma. Synapse.
Sacomere is contractile units in the what? Muscle fiber.
What is another name for actin? Thin filaments.
What is actin? Thin contractile proteins that interact with myosin.
What is another name for Myosin? Thick filaments.
What is Myosin? Thicker contractile proteins.
The protein backbone that anchors actin filaments is what? Z-line.
What does Z-line do? If forms the end boundaries of the sacomere.
Titin is the protein that anchors myosin to what? The Z-line.
____________ and ___________ inhibitory proteins that prevent contraction when relaxed. Troponin and Tropomyosin.
Sarcoplasmic reticulum is the er of the muscle cell. What does it store? Calcium ions.
Nerve impulse causes a release of Ach from what? The axon terminal.
Ach causes what kind of impulse in the sarcolemma? Electrical.
What mechanism causes actin filaments to pull against myosin filaments? Sliding filament.
At rest the sarcolemma is what? Polarized.
The outside of the sarcolemma is positive or negative? Positive.
The inside of the sarcolemma is ________. Negative.
There is more Na+ on the outside or inside? Outside.
There is more K+ on the _______. Inside.
What is set up by the sodium potassium pump? Gradient.
The sodium potassium pump requires what? ATP
In sarcolemma depolariztion ACh bonds to what? The ACh receptors.
Sarcolemma depolarization cause the sarcolemma to become more __________ to Na+. Permiable.
Na+ rushes into the cell and _________ it, causes a __________ of changes. Depolorizes, Reversal.
What is the name of T tubule. Tranverse tubules.
What do the T tubule do? Channels that carry the action potential to the inner parts of the cell.
What does sarcolemma repolarization? Resetting the action potential.
What is contraction? Sliding filament mechanism.
Reducing the angle of the joint is what? Flexion
Extension is what? Increasing the angle of the joint.
Inversion is the tilting of what? The foot/ankle medially.
What is the tilting of the foot/ankle laterally? Eversion
Rotating the palm up is? Supranation.
Pronation is rotating the palm _______. Down
Lateral flexion is what? Side bending
Rotating around a joint is? Rotation
Circumduction is moving in a _____________ motion without rotation. Circular.
Bringing a part away from the midline is? Abduction
Adduction is what? Bringing the part to the midline.
Retraction is bringing a part _______ the midine or posteriorly. Toward.
Bringing the part away from the midline or anteriorly is? Protraction.
What is Translation? A,P,R,L (moving the head-like a chicken)
Plantar flexion is what? Increasing angle of the ankle joint.
What are the 3 calf muscle names? Gastrocnemeus, soleus, plantaris.
How many Rotator cuff muscles are there? 4
What are the names of the rotator cuff muscles? supraspinatous, infraspinatous, subscapularis, teres minor.
What are the 3 Glutes muscles? Gluteus maximus, gluteus minimus, gluteus medius.
What do the frontal muscles control? The raising of the eyebrows, wrinkles the skin in the forehead.
What muscle closes the eye? Orbicularis oculi.
What muscle puckers the lips? Orbicularis oris.
What muscle closes the jaw? Masseter.
The Buccinar muscle controls what? It pulls the corner of the mouth laterally.
What muscle turns the head to the opposite side? (both-flex head and neck) Sternocleidomastoid.
What muscle turns the head to the same side (both extend head and neck) Semispinalis capitis (a deep muscle)
The splenius capitis muscle controls what? Turns head to the same side.
Created by: 1356095555