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Clin Med 1-Nutrition

Clinical Medicine 1-Nutrition

Vitamins organic, can't be synthesized by the body so they need to be supplied in the diet
What are the fat soluble vitamins? A, D, E, K
Fat Soluble Vitamin require bile salts and fat clusters for absorption
water soluble vitamins poorly stored in the body and lost by the urinary tract
minerals inorganic chemicals that are important to a balanced diet
macro-minerals required in the diet in a large amount and measured in a %
What macro-minerals are important in bone formation and to prevent malformation? calcium and phosphorus
What should the calcium and phosphorus ratio be for normal bone growth? 1:1
What is a major role of sodium in the body? osmotic pressure and water retention
micro-minerals required in the diet in small amounts-measured in parts per million (ppm)
What kind of eaters consume more minerals? carnivores
What is the goal of nutrition in companion animals? maximize the longevity and quality of life and reduce nutritional risk factors
What is the goal of nutrition in large animals? increase/rapidly produce meat and dairy products
How much does spaying and neutering change nutritional needs? decrease 10%
How does weather change appetite? hot weather increases thirst and decreases hunger, cold weather increases hunger
What reproductive statuses increase nutritional needs? active studs, pregnancy, and lactating
How do nutritional needs change when an animal is injured? increase
energy essential for sustaining life in all animals
nutrients ant substance that supports life when ingested
What are the 6 main nutrients? vitamins, minerals, fats, proteins, carbohydrates, water
Which of the 6 main nutrients are energy producing? fats, proteins, and carbohydrates
If food is high in digestibility is more or less consumption needed? less
True or False: Food high in fiber is lower in digestibility. True
Palatability sensory factors of food
What are the palatability factors of food? moisture, odor, texture, shape, fat/protein levels, temperature, and acidity
additives non energy, non nutrient sources added to food to enhance color, flavor, texture, or stability
preservatives substances capable of inhibiting foods and deteriorating microbes
What do carbohydrates break down into? simple sugars
What do fats break down into? triglycerides
What do proteins break down into? ammino acids
complete diet contains nutrients with proper bioavailability
balanced diet provides proper amount and nutrient ratio for 24 hours
complete and balanced diet meets nutrient and energy requirements
complementary diet combining 2 or more sources to improve outcome (wet and dry)
all-purpose 1 stage diet that meets all life stages, formulated for growth and lactating
special purpose foods specialized nutrition for specialized needs
bioavailability the extent to which a nutrient ingested is available for absorption and utilization
true cost cost of feeding an animal per day per year
How much water content does dry food contain? 3-10%
How much water does semi-moist food contain? 25-35%
What are benefits of dry food? lower true cost, dental benefits, can be left out
What are drawbacks of dry food? less palatable and if left out for free feed can lead to obesity
What are drawbacks to semi moist food? high sugars so not good for diabetic and obese patients, high high sodium so not good for heart patients
How much water do canned foods typically contain? 70-83%
What are the benefits of canned foods? high water, high palatability, taste of animal tissue
What is the drawback of canned foods? increased cost
What are the 3 textures of canned foods? loaf, all meat appearance, and processed meat in a jelly matrix
What can grapes and raisins cause? renal failure
AAFCO Association of American Feed Control Officials
What does AAFCO do? make standards for what pet food labels are required to state and description of ingredients, also provides standards for food test
What 7 things are pet foods required to state? 1. net weight 2. product designator (dog/cat) 3. name and address of distributor 4. gaurenteed analysis in % for crude protein, fat, fiber, and moisture 5. ingredients in descending order by weight 6. nutritional adequacy statements 7. feeding guidelines
If only 1 ingredient is listed in the food, how much of that ingredient must be in the food? 70%
If the food label uses the words "stew, dinner, or entree" how much of a certain ingredient listed must the food contain? 10% in moist foods, 25% in dry foods
If a food label says "with" a certain ingredient, how much must it contain? 3%
If a food label says "flavor" of a certain ingredient how much of it must it contain? only detectable by the animal eating it
What is the maximum moisture content for pet food in the US? 78% unless the food is a stew, gravy, juice, or milk replacer
all purpose balanced for growth and lactation
premium specific purpose; more natural
gourmet higher palatability
generic white label
private label grocery store brand
specialty better quality, made for different life stages, and special needs, aim for disease prevention and management
In what ways is a commercial diet better than a home made diet? commercial diet is superior in nutrient content, convenience, cost, and overall quality. Home made diets can results in nutrient imbalances and nutrient deficiencies and excess.
What is the difference between a complete and balanced diet? Complete diet contains nutrients with appropriate bioavailability- Balanced diet provides proper amount and nutrient ratio for a 24 hour period
Are supplements necessary? not if the animal is provided with a balanced pet food
If you're making a homemade diet what aspects require detailed knowledge? specific nutrient knowledge, nutritional value of ingredients, possible dietary interactions, possible deterioration of nutrients during cooking and storage
What are 5 food groups that are required in a home made diet? 1. Carbohydrates/Fiber 2. Protein Source 3. Fat Source 4. Mineral Source 5. MultiVitamin and Trace Mineral Source
What carbohydrate to protein ratio is required in cats? 1:1 to 2:1
What carbohydrate to protein ration is required in dogs? 2:1 to 3:1
Most homemade diets require what supplementation? calcium
Are human supplements ok to mix with home-prepared diets? NO!
What 3 things are not included on the nutritional adequacy statement? 1. adequacy 2. bioavailability 3. excess
How do ingredient percentages work? They only give minimum and maximum levels, not exact amounts of the ingredient
kilocallorie the amount of heat (energy) needed to raise the temperature of 1 kg of water 1 degree Celsius
What causes energy requirements to vary from one dog to another? breed, size, age, activity level, environment, reproductive status
What does a nutritional assessment consist of? physical exam and history
What are the 2 main feeding methods? ad lib and time restricted
What can ad lib feeding lead to? overeating and obesity
Why should large meals be avoided before exercise in dogs? can cause GDV
colostrum first milk produced first few days after birth, rich in maternal antibodies; essential in passive immunity
How long does colostrum provide immunity? until about 2-4 months of age
What is mother's milk composed of? 1. water 2. protein 3. fat 4. mineral
About how much weight should a puppy be gaining? 2-4 grams per day per kg of their adult weight
Puppies with low birth weights are more prone to what? hypoglycemia, hypothermia, and sepsis
What are signs of hypothermia? shallow breaths, bradycardia, GI paralysis, and coma
When is peak lactation? 4 weeks
When should weaning be concluded? 6-8 weeks
Why should calorie content be lower in giant breed dog? they have rapid growth rates that can put stress on their bones and later cause osteochondritis, hip dysplasia, pan osteitis, and wobbler syndrome
Why does group feeding not work well? the dominant dog can get obese, the timid dog can get anorexic
obesity body condition with a ratio of too much fat to lean tissue or weight 15-20% greater than optimal
What are the causes of obesity? overfeeding during growth, over eating, genetic disposition, aging, neutering, and competitive eating
True or false: It is safe to feed a feline a vegetarian diet. FALSE-nutritional requirements can only be found in animal tissue
What kind of eaters are cats? carnivores, predators, and grazers
grazers animals that nibble throughout the day and don't prefer meal feedings
How much more protein do cats require than dogs? 2x
How long is gestation in the queen? 63 days
What can you do to increase a cats water intake? running water such as fountains and faucets, flavor water, wet food
What kind of food should be fed during gestation and lactation? a good quality kitten food
About how much do kittens weigh at birth and gain weight? 85-120g at birth and grow about 100g/week
Are kittens weaned before or after puppies? after
Why should adult cats be fed a consistent diet? to eliminate finicky behavior
What raw treat can potentially cause toxic levels of Vitamin A? raw liver
Describe a hairball tubular and do not contain food or bile
FORL feline oral re-absorptive lesions; sores in the mouth that can cause a cat to stop eating hard food
Is fasting in cats recommended to loose weight? NO! it can become fatal and cause hepatic lipidosis
What is the best way to combat obesity in felines? prevention: low fat diet, frequent small meals, l-carnitine supplement
FLUTD feline lower urinary tract disease and urolithiasis
What causes FLUTD? struvites, calcium oxalate, urethral plugs, and FIC (feline idiopathic cystitis)
What are clinical signs of FLUTD? improper urination, frequency of urination, and straining to urinate
What are the 2 most common calculi? struvite (coffin lid) and calcium oxalate (x-box)
What factors influence FLUTD? 1. minerals in the diet 2. urinary pH 3. urine concentration 4. magnesium in the diet
What is a major clinical problem for patients unwilling or unable to eat? malnutrition
protein-calorie malnutrition body starts using protein (muscle) for energy
What can protein-calorie malnutrition cause? decreased immune function, delayed wound healing, loss of muscle mass, delayed recovery, increased mortality
anorexia lack of desire to eat
enteral feeding food is introduced to the GI tract for digestion to obtain nutrients
parenteral feeding providing nutrients to an animal IV when the GI tract is severely impaired
coax feeding nursing care used to entice the animal to eat it's own food (hand feeding, adding flavor, favorite foods, other foods)
What can be used to stimulate appetite? medications (oral and injectable)
What can be used in animals where coax feeding or appetite stimulation won't work? force feeding
syringe feeding a/d food or clinicare and water forced into patients mouth and letting them swallow on their own
gel feeding nutrical or good high calorie supplement; place on the hard palate and let patient swallow/eat it
When is a NG tube used? when an animal has a fully functional digestive tract and is not vomiting but wont eat
Where is an NG tube placed? inserted through the nose, through the throat and esophagus and into the stomach
How long can a NG tube remain in place? an extended period of time
Where is a NG tube measured? from the nose to the last rib
What are 3 ways to check that a feeding tube is in the proper position? 1. inject a few mls of air into tube and auscult abdomen for gurgling sounds 2. inject small amount of sterile saline and observe for coughing-indicating the tube is in the lungs 3. x-ray
What should ALWAYS be done when pulling a feeding tube? kink it!
What indicates a stomach tube placement? nutrition, administer contrast medium, bloat, administer activated charcoal in case of toxin ingestion
When is it ok to use a stomach tube? When the GI tract is fully functional, and the animal is not vomiting but refuses to eat
Can a stomach tube be left in for an extended period? no
Where is a stomach tube measured? from the mouth to the last rib
Where is a pharyngostomy tube placed? through the ventral wall of the neck, through the pharynx and into the esophagus
When is it ok to use a pharyngostomy tube? when the animal has a fully functional GI tract distal to the pharynx. must not be vomiting (bypasses the oral cavity)
What are certain cases where a pharyngostomy tube may be warranted? stomatitis, severe dental disease, and mandibular fractures
Where is a gastrostomy tube placed? from the left wall of the abdomen into the stomach
When is a gastrostomy tube indicated? when nutrient intake proximal to the stomach can't occur but the rest of the GI tract is functioning normally
How long can a peg tube be left in? months with proper care
Where is a jejunostomy tube placed? into the jejunum and out of the body wall
Total parenteral nutrition nutrients provided through IV catheter into the bloodstream
When is TPN indicated? when the GI tract is compromised, vomiting, and situations where animal is unable to eat for an extended period of time
What are signs of feeding tube discomfort? restlessness, salivation, abdominal bloating, and vomiting
Why should you aspirate before feeding? to see how much of the prior meal is still left in the tube
How much of the prior feeding remaining to skip the next feeding? 1/3
Why should gastric motility be monitored? if 2 subsequent meals are skipped medication may be needed to increase GI motility
What is the volume of a dog's stomach? ~90ml/kg
What is the volume of the cat's stomach? ~100ml/kg
What is the maximum amount to feed a dog or cat with a feeding tube? 50ml/kg
What are complications of feeding tubes? pulmonary aspiration, vomiting, diarrhea, constipation, tube occlusion, paritonitis, delayed gastric emptying, bacterial contamination, and cellulitis
Malnutrition starts taking what nutrient out of muscles? protein
Why should tube location be checked before each feeding? the tube can move, the animal can become uncomfortable or in the wrong location
What does RER stand for? resting energy requirement
What does IER stand for? illness energy requirement
What are cecotropes? special "night droppings" that are ingested directly from the anus, elongated, green in color, and strong in odor
What is a common vitamin deficiency in rabbits Vitamin A
What is the main signs of Vit A deficiency in rabbits? increased neonatal fatality, CNS defects
Why should antibiotics only be used when necessary in rabbits? it disrupts normal bacterial growth in the intestine and can lead to diarrhea and death
What color is normal rabbit urine? light yellow-reddish brown
What vitamin deficiency is common in guinea pigs? Vitamin C
What are signs of Vit C deficiency in guinea pigs? alopecia, anorexia, dehydration, poor wound healing, TMJ, and periodontal disease
malocclusion teeth don't line up or over grow
How can you prevent malocclusions? promote gnawing, hard foods,
What kind of teeth do most rodents have? open rooted
What can overgrown teeth cause? prevents eating and drinking
What is a common eating habit of hamsters? hoarding
What seed should be avoided in a gerbils diet? sunflower seeds
What kind of eaters are gerbils? grazers
What kind of digestive system do chinchillas have? hindgut fermentors
Why should the diets of chinchillas be high in fiber? It can cause diarrhea, constipation, and bloat, and rectal prolapse if not
What kind of eaters are ferrets? carnivores
What is unique about a ferrets weight? looses weight in summer and autumn
Created by: abarber09



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