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Mosby's Comprehension review 3ed

Cardiovascular System Made up of the Heart and Blood Vessels
Myocardium The heart muscle.
Cardiac Muscle Cells Are Striated and are connected by intercalated discs
Intercalated Discs Have a low electrical resistance, therefor the impulse spreads very quickly and all cells seem to function as one
Protective layers of the Heart Pericardium Endocardium
Pericardium Double walled membranous sac covering the myocardium. Two parts-Fibrous Pericardium and Serous pericardium,
Fibrous Pericardium Outer layer, enveloping the heart- a tough fibrous connective tissue
Serous Pericardium inner layer-enveloping the heart- made up of two layers: Parietal Layer, Visceral Layer
Parietal Layer Part of the Serous Pericardium- adheres to the fibrouse pericardium
Visceral Layer part of the Serous Pericardium- adheres to the myocardium
Pericardial Cavity Between the two layers of the Serous Pericardium and is filled with Pericardial Fluid
Pericardial Fluid Located in the pericardial cavity and reduces friction when the heart beats.
Endocardium A serous membrane lining the inner chambers of the heart
Pulmunary Circulation Precava and Postcava empty into the R Atrium. Blood then passes through the tricuspid valve into the R Ventricle and through the Pulmunary Artery (passes the pulmunary semilunar valve) to the lungs, where the blood is O2nized n returned to heart via P.V.
Systemic Circulation aka Somatic Circulation O2ated blood in LA flows through bicuspid/mital into LV & out the Aorta
Innominate Artery aka brachiocephalic- branches into the R subclavian artery and R&L common caroted arteries. Left sub clavian artery.
Fetal Circulation- these are not yet intact Lungs, kidneys, digestive tract
umbilical vein ascends towards fetal liver & / into 2. 1 branch joins the hepatic p. vein, enters liver- most blood flows into the ductus venosus- connect to postcava
postcava and precava in fetal development postcava and Precava enters R A
Foramen Ovale in fetal development- hole between R and L Atrium. Blood flows through to RA, then goes to LV and out of the Aorta.
Right Ventricle in Fetal Development Blood that goes here, goes into the pulmonary artery. Most blood is channeled through the Ductus arteriosus into the aorta
Four layers that make up the GI tact wall 1. Mucosa- closest to the lumen 3 layers 2. Submucosa- loose CT 3. Musclaris Externa: 2-3 layers 4. Serosa-loose CT
Mucosa of GI- three sub layers 1. Epithelium: stratified squamous & simple columnar 2. Lamina propria: CT 3. Muscularis mucosa: SM
Muscularis externa: 2-3 layers of SM depending on Loc Oblique Muscle: Stomach has three layers Circular muscle Longitudinal muscle
Pharynx common passageway for digestive and respiratory system
Esophagus Muscular tube running from the pharynx to the cardia (opening to stomach)
Four Regions of Simple Stomachs Esophageal- non glandular Cardiac- procedures mucus Fundic- True body of the stomach &contains true gastric glands Pyloric- produces mucus
four cell types found in the Fundic Mucous Neck Cells- produce Mucus Chief Cells- produce enzyme pepsinogen Pariental Cells- produce NAH2 Endocrine Cells- produce hormone Gastrin
Chyme Has inner folds known as Rugae. Food is mixed in stomach w/secretions from the digestive glands until it is reduced to a liquid- CHYME
Ruminant Stomachs four compartments: Rumen, Reticulum, Omasum and Abomasm
Rumen Fermination Vent- largest compartment. Food is mixed and churned in a favorable environment (proper pH, temp, bac and anaerobic conditions)
Reticulum Hardware compartment. Most cranial compartment separated from rumen. AKA Honeycomp. Acts as passageway for food. Paces contractions of Rumen
Omasum Grinds up the food and absorbs H2O and bicarbonate. Composed of many layers of lamina, which resembles leaves
Abomasum True glandular stomach, mixes food w/ enzymes initiating chemical digestion
Small Intestines duodenum jejunum ileum
Three Specialized structures designed to increase the surface are of the SI 1. Circular Folds- deep mucosal folds 2. Intestinal Villi- long slender projections 3. Microvilli- columnar epithelial cells have microvilli
Three Digestive Enzymes produced in the SI Proteases Amylase Lipase
Large Intestines Cecum found at the ileocecocolic junction Colon - acending. tranverse, decending Ha no villi, circular folds or enzyms Absorbs H2O, produces V. B & K propels waste to rectum
Rectum ends portion of L.I. secretes mucus
Anus Terminal ending of GI tract 2 sphincters- involuntary and voluntary
Pancreas- how it aids digestion prduces -> to digest Trypin- protein Lipase- fats Pancreatic Amalase- starch Nuclease- nucleic acid Elastase- elastin Chymotrypsin- proteins peptidases- lg proteins
Liver- how it aids digestion bile emulsifies fat
Gallbladder- how it aids digestion Stores bile- releases it into the duodenum when fats are present- under the influence of CCK. Rats and horses do not have Gallbladders
Pancreatic enzymes are delivered in a basic or alkaline fluid? Why? Alkaline- to help neutralize the chyme
Small Intestines produce the following enzymes Trypsin- to act on disaccharides Maltaese, sucrase and lactase: to act on disaccharides Nuclease: to act on nucleic acid Chyme is mixed enzymes
Absorption in the SI Monosaccharides and amino acuds are absorbed through the intestinal capillaries, and fats are absorbed through the lacteals of the intestinal villi
Functions of the Lymphatic system Absorbs protein-containing fluid and returns it to venous system Transports fats digestive tract to blood Produces lymphocytes Develops immunity
Nostrils/Nares Extremal Opening of the respiratory system.
Nasal Cavity Lined w/ mucus membrane Houses turbinate bones Air is warmed by capillaries, moistened and filtered
Phaynx- in the Resp System 4 Parts Nasopharynx- from posterior nares to soft palate Oropharynx from soft palate to hyoid bone Laryngopharynx: from hyoid bone to larynx Eustachian tube: from middle ear to nasopharnyx
Larynx/Voice box Consist of Cartilage- Epiglottis covers glottis during swallowing Vocal folds attach to arytenoid cartilage
Larynx/Voice box Consist of Cartilage: epiglottic, thyroid, cricoid, arytenoid
Trachea Consists of non-collapsible , C shaped cartilagiouse rings Lined with ciliated columnar cells Divided into bronchi at the tracheal bifurcation
Bronchi Right and left cartilaginouse bronchi enter the lungs Passageways become progressively smaller and the amount of cartilage diminishes
Bronchiole Consits of SM, no cartilage Lead to the alveoli
Lungs Varying number of lobes, depending on species Covered w/ Visceral Pleura Houses alveoli
Alveoli Microscopic air sacs located in lung. Gas exchange occurs here
Respiration of Mammals Ventilation- movement of air b/t atmosphere and lungs External Resp- exchange of gases b/t alveoli & blood Internal Resp- exchange of gases b/t blood and cells
Ventilation- Inspiration & Expiration
Inspiration the nervous impulse from brain.... causes diaphragm & external intercostal muscles to contrast
Inspiration- how does the diaphragm move? Diaphragm moves caudally and the chest moves ventrally: therefore the size of the thoracic cavity is increased which decreases intra horacic pressure and intraalveolar pressure
Why does air move into the lungs Because Intraalveolar pressure is less than atmospheric pressure
Expiration: Diaphragm and external intercostal muscles do what?
At Expiration the Diaphragm moves which way? Diaphragm moves cranially and the chest moves dorsally; This decreases the size of the thoracic cavity, which increases intrathoracic pressure and intraalveolar pressure
Inspiration reserve volume amount of air inspired over the tidal volume
Expiratory reserve volume Amount of air expired over the tidal volume
Respiratory Rate Dogs? Cats? Horses? Dogs: 10 to 30 bpm Cats: 24 to 42 bpm Horses: 8 to 16 bpm
Pneumonia Inflammation of the lungs causes primarily by bacteria, viruses, or chemical irritants
Atelectasis Collapsed Lung
Pneumothorax Air in the thoracic cavity
four main centers in the brain to regulate the respiration 1.Inspiratory center- present on the medulla oblongata 2.Expiratory center-present on the medulla oblongata 3.Pneumotaxic center- centers on the pons region of brain 4.Apneustic center- centers on the pons region of brain
Hering-Breuer reflex Stretch receptors in the lungs that prevent the lungs from over-inflating
Created by: 669003779



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