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ANthro test 1

QuestionAnswer
Physical Anthropology traditional name of biological anthro
cultural anthro focuses on human cultural behavior and cultural systems
linguistic anthro studies language and explains the differences of the language and the society that uses it
archaeology studies human cultural past and the reconstruction of past cultural sys.
evolution change through time, usually with reference to biological species, but may also refer to changes within cultural sys.
Alleles variants of a gene. most genes possess more than one possible allele, the diff. alleles conveying diff. instructions for the development of a certain phenotype.
Adaptation state of an organism which is adjusted to survive its environment through its physical traits and behaviors; natural process.
chromosomes strands of DNA in the nucleus of a cell.
codominant both alleles of a pair are expressed in the phenotype.
Dominant allele of a heterozygous pair that is expressed in the phenotype.
fitness the relative adaptiveness of an individual organism, measured ultimately by reproductive success.
Gamete cells of sexual reproduction, commonly sperm and egg, which contain only half the chromosomes of a normal cell.
Genes portions of the DNA molecule that code for a functional product, usually a protein.
Gene pool all the alleles in a population.
Genotypes alleles possessed by an organism.(a measurement of how an individual differs or is specialized within a group of individuals or a species)
Homozygous Having two of the same allele in a gene pair.
Heterozygous Having two diff. alleles in a gene pair.
Mitosis process of cell division that results in two exact copies of the original cell.
Meiosis Process of cell division in which gametes are produced, each gamete having 1/2 the normal complement of chromosomes and only one allele of each original pair.
Niche The environment of an organism and its adaptive response to that environment.
Phenotypes The chemical or physical RESULTS of the genetic code.(traits)
Recessive allele of a heterozygous pair that is not expressed. (must be Homozygous to be dominant)
Zygote the fertilized egg before cell division begins.
Charles Darwin established that all species of life have descended over time from common ancestry, and proposed the scientific theory that this branching pattern of evolution resulted from a process that he called natural selection.
Catastrophism the belief that the Earth was changed to catastrophes: earthquakes and volcanoes; not just through an evolutionary process.
Uniformitarianism the concept that the earth's surface was shaped in the past by gradual processes, such as erosion, and by small sudden changes, such as earthquakes.(should have acted same in past)
Charles Lyell had the idea that the earth was shaped by slow-moving forces still in operation today. (wrote uniformitarianism)
Jean Baptiste de Lamarck Believed that an individual will acquire or develop a new trait than pass to offspring (muscles/blue hair)-inheritance of acquired characteristics.
Georges Cuvier established the fields of comparative anatomy and paleontology through his work in comparing living animals with fossils
James Ussher believed that the time and date of the creation of the Earth as the night preceding Sunday, 23 October 4004 BC,
James Hutton The solid parts of the present land appear in general, to have been composed of the productions of the sea, and of other materials similar to those now found upon the shores.
Natural Selection Evolutionary change based on the differential reproductive success of individuals within a species.
Alfred Wallace also had the idea of natural selection.
Gregor Mendel believed in law of inheritance
Oocyte Female egg
Spermatocyte Male sperm
Haploid number Half the diploid number (23)
Diploid number 46 chromosomes/ # of chromosomes in a cell.
variation the act, process, or accident of varying in condition, character, or degree:
Crossing over The exchange of genetic material between homologous chromosomes that occurs during meiosis and contributes to genetic variability.
Nucleus a part of the cell containing DNA and RNA and responsible for growth and reproduction
Cell a usually microscopic structure containing nuclear and cytoplasmic material enclosed by a semipermeable membrane and, in plants, a cell wall; THE BASIC STRUCTURAL UNIT OF ALL ORGANISMS
sex chromosome Either of a pair of chromosomes, usually designated X or Y, that combine to determine the sex and sex-linked characteristics of an individual, with XX resulting in a female and XY in a mal
autosomes A chromosome other than a sex chromosome, normally occurring in pairs in somatic cells and singly in gametes.
X linked recessive a mode of inheritance in which a mutation in a gene on the X chromosome causes the phenotype to be expressed (1) in males and (2) in females who are homozygous for the gene mutation.
Chromosome anomaly reflects an atypical number of chromosomes or a structural abnormality in one or more chromosomes.
Heredity the transmission of genetic characters from parents to offspring:
Principle if Segregation allele pairs separate or segregate during gamete formation, and randomly unite at fertilization.(breaking up of allele pairs in production of gametes).
Principle of Independent Assortment allele pairs separate independently during the formation of gametes. This means that traits are transmitted to offspring independently of one another.
James Lightfoot estimated that earth was created in 3929 BC
Environment the social and cultural forces that shape the life of a person or a population.
Population the total number of persons inhabiting a country, city, or any district or area.
Competition a contest for some prize, honor, or advantage: Both girls entered the competition.
Comte de Buffon concluded that catastrophic events do occur and are rare. earths history is due to operation uniformly repeated(erosion/comet)
Created by: 1065480130