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test 1 anthropology

Anthropology test #1

Anthropological Perspective The approach to social research that seeks to understand culture from the point of view of the people within that cultural context.
Anthropology the holistic study of humankind
applied anthropology branch of anthropology in which practitioners use anthropology in the service of particular social concerns
archaeology the study of material artifacts to understand a people's culture and society, usually in the past
cultural anthropology the description, interpretation, and analysis of similarities and differences in human cultures
Cultural other a term used to refer to the subjective experience of difference at the cultural level; identifying "us/me" and "them/you" through cultural symbols and markers.
ethnoarchaeology an approach to archaeology that combines the analysis of material life with information taken from contemporary populations.
ethnographic fieldwork anthropology's hallmark research method, base upon the anthropologist's direct experience in a culture.
ethnographic interviews purposeful, documentation conversation with research participants that may be formal or informal
ethnography a rich description and analysis of a culture that includes the anthropologist's experience of "being there"
excavation a rigorous method of extracting artifacts from underground; the primary data collection method of archaeologists
focus groups a type of interview in which small groups of people are asked to discuss a particular topics while the anthropologist takes notes.
"go native" an expression referring to a phenomenon in which an anthropologist fully affiliates with the culture being studied
holistic understanding the view that all parts of human life are interconnected.
life history an interview or series of interviews that document the trajectory of a single life
linguistics the subfield of anthropology devoted to the study of language
mapping diagramming geographical space or human interpretation and use of space
mound builders a native american group known for their burial mounds
participation observation an approach to research that combines participation and observation in various ways to optimize understanding of the culture being studied.
physical anthropology the study of human anatomy, nonhuman primates and human origin
primatology the study of nonhuman primates
qualitative research methods interpretive approaches that use participant observation, interviews, document analysis, and other methods to understand the nature and meaning of phenomena
quantitative research methods measurement based approach that relies mathematics, statistics, and hypotheses for producing and interpreting data
rapid ethnographic assessment features the time compressed use of focus groups, ethnographic interviews, mapping, and other methods within a framework of participant observation.
rapport a relationship of conversational ease with individuals or groups
survey a standardized set of questions applied to numerous individuals or places
armchair anthropologists early anthropologists who gathered datd from travelogues and books rather than from their own direct research
cultural relativism the view that cultural practices and beliefs are best understood in relation to their entire context
cultural superiority the belief that one culture in more enlightened , advanced, civilized, or intelligent than another
culture the total way of life of a group of people that is learned, adaptive, shared and integrated
epistemological relativism the belief that the validity of knowledge itself is limited to the context in which it was produced
ethnocentrism the use of one's own culture to measure another's, putting one's own culture at the center of interpretation and typically devaluing the other culture.
historical particularism an early anthropological theory that argues that each culture is a unique representation of its history and context
monogenesis the view that all humans originate from a single creation of God
moral relativism the idea that something is only right or wrong according to context-specific criteria
polygenesis the theory that various groups of humans appear on earth of were created separately.
racism the belief that humans are organized into race groupings that are different from one another in intelligence and worth
tacit ethnocentrism the assumption that one's own way of life is just normal, not cultural
unilinear cultural evolution an early anthropological theory that states all cultures evolve from simple to complex along a single trajectory of progress
xenophobia an intense, irrational dislike of people from other countries or cultures
code switching the practice of keeping particular forms of speech separate in one's life, using one in one setting and another in another setting
creole type of language formed when speakers of different languages combine their languages
descriptive linguistics the study of specific features of individual languages, such as patterns of grammar and sounds, as they exist in a given moment in time
design feature an element that is common to all languages
diachronic studies that focus on change over time
dialect distinct but mutually intelligible forms of a single language
ethnosemantics the study of the culturally and linguistically specific ways people make sense of the world
grammar the rules that people use to organize their speech
historical linguistics the study of how languages develop and change over time and how different languages are related to one another
kinesics body language
language a system of verbal and nonverbal symbols used to communicate
language family a group of languages that derive from a common ancestor language
language hierarchy the system by which some languages or dialects have ranked political, economic, or social status
language theory an explanation of the general nature of language
lexicon all the morphemes of a particular language
linguistic morphology the patterns and structures of words in a language
linguistic nationalism the use of language to promote nationalist ideologies
morphemes units of language that carry meaning
official language language sanctioned by a ruling body
paralanguage certain qualities applied to particular words, such as volume tone or emphasis
philology the study of societies through their texts
phonemes the sounds available in any particular language
phonemics the study of specific structures and sounds humans use in language
phonetics the study of all possible structures and sounds humans use in language
phonology the study of language sounds, including phonemics and phonetics
pidgin language formed when speakers in a multicultural context use a simplified form of one language as a common language among the groups
protolanguage the ancient language from which all the members of a particular language family are derived
regional dialect an accent and word choice related to geography
social dialect a way of speaking connected to class
social register a way of speaking related to a specific setting such as a sporting event, institution of higher learning, or religious community
sociolinguistics the study of how language is used by people in a society
structuralism a theory of language that says all languages share an underlying binary structure
symbol something that stand for something else
synchronic studies that focus on a given moment in time
syntax the order in which morphemes appear
agriculture a subsistence system that requires constant and intensive use of permanent fields for plant cultivation
articulation the strategic use of several modes of subsistence at the same time
balanced reciprocity a form of exchange in which roughly equivalent good or services are exchanged immediately, or within a relatively short amount of time, with or without money
biomass all living things, plants and animals, contained in and supported by a particular area of land
economic anthropology the study of how people meet needs through production, exchange and consumption
ethnocide the death of a culture when its members shift to a different way of life, even as the people groups survive
exchange systems social processes by which people give and receive goods and services
extensive farming farming practices that involve putting relatively little energy into the land for the calories extracted
fissioning splitting a group into numerous smaller groups. a practice used by foragers to maintain group size and reduce interpersonal conflict
foraging a subsistence strategy based on gathering plants that grow wild in the environment and hunting available animals
formalist theory an economic theory that teaches that the logic people use to pursue economic goals is universal
generalized reciprocity a form of exchange involving gift exchanges with no precise accounting of value and no precise expectation for type or time of return
genocide the systematic killing of most members of a cult
horticulture a subsistence strategy in which people cultivate varieties of wild or domestic crops, primarily for their won use, using relatively little technology
intensive farming agriculture or horticulture techniques that directly replenish the nutrients in the soil, producing higher crop yields
leveling mechanism a redistribution process that reduces social inequality
market economy a system of exchange in which people exchange their labor for money, which is exchanged for goods and services
monocropping growing one species of a plant in a garden or field
multicropping growing several species of plants in a single garden
negative reciprocity a form of exchange in which one or both parties seek to receive more than they give
nomadic pastoralism a form of pastoralism that involves moving animals from place to place in responce to food and water supply
pastoralism a subsistence strategy based on the use of domestic herd animals
potlach a form of redistribution and exchange traditionally practices by Northwest Native American groups
production any human action intended to convert resources in the environment into food
property rights the cultural understanding that some family or person has a right to the land and crops into which labor has been invested
redistribution a system of exchange in which a centralized authority collects goods and service from a group of people and redistributes them
subsistence farming growing food for consumption by ones own family
subsistence strategy a culturally created means of getting food
substantivist theory an economic theory that teaches that economic behavior and motivations vary by culture
swidden farming the clearing and burning of a section of forest for cultivation, and after some time, moving on to a new forest space
transumant pastoralism the practice of moving herds seasonally between high meadows in the summer and human settlements in the winter
usufruct rights an understanding of property rights in which a plot of land "belongs" to the person of family using it. when they are done using it their rights to that land end.
cultural ecology an anthropological theory that teaches that culture can be understood in terms of how people adapt to and interact with natural environment
cultural marxism a postmodern theory that draws on Carl Marx's concepts of power, inequality and class struggle to understand culture change
cultural materialism a theory that understands culture as driven by the material, ecological, and economic adaptations humans make
cultural traits cultural artifacts or activities
diffusionism an early anthropological theory that stating that cultural traits spread from more advanced to less advanced societies
falsification the view that scientific theories cannot be proven, only falsified
feminist theory highlights the importance of gender as an analytic concept and the importance of including women in cultural analysis
functionalism culture develops in response to human needs
historical particularism argues that each culture is a unique representation of its history and context
idiographic explanation a rich description of a particular case
naturalism a belief that all that exists is that which can be touches, seen or otherwise physically experienced
nomothic explanation a generalization, a natural law that predicts and explains culture change and human behavior
positivism seeking universal, nomothic explanation through empirical evidence
reflexivity the inclusion of the anthropologist's perspective and experience in ethnographic writing
sociobiology culture is rooted in the human drive for evolutionary advantage and genetic survival
structural-functionalism the functions of particular beliefs or behaviors may be understood in the support of social order
structuralism human biology, specifically brain structure, drives culture
Created by: ncronk
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