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FINAL anthro

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QuestionAnswer
Sahelanthropus tchadensis Central Africa/ 6-7 mya/ Hominidae status debated
Orrorin tugenesis Central Africa/6 mya
Ardipithecus ramidus Ardipithecus ramidus kadabba/ Australopithecus ramidus ("Ardi")/ East Africa/5.5 mya-4.4mya
Australopithecus afarensis "Lucy"/ E Africa/ 4-3 mya
Australopithecus africans "Taung child"/ S. Africa/ 2.7-2 mya
Australopithecus garhi E. Africa/ 2.5 mya
Australopithecus sediba S. Africa/ 2 mya
The Homind Fossil Record Australopithecus/Orrorin/ Ardipithecus/ Sahelanthropus/ Paranthropus/ Homo
Homo erectus(H. ergaster) Found earliest in Africa Later spread to Asia 1.8mya – 50,000ya  Cranial capacity: 800-1100cc  Higher and wider frontal than Homo habilis  Moderate postorbital constriction  Higher and wider parietals
Homo erectus(H. ergaster)  Encephalization continues  Reduction in face/brain ratio  Prominent temporal lines  Sagittal keel  Occipital torus  Increased cranial thickness compared to previous Hominids  Slight nasal bridge  Zygomatic arch no longer the widest
Homo erectus(H. ergaster)  Moderate to prominent supraorbital ridge  Moderate lower facial prognathism  Dental arcade more parabolic  Reduction in size of teeth  Deep palate  Receding chin  Post-cranial skeleton has reduced arm length  Reduced finger length
Homo erectus(H. ergaster)  Increased leg length  Post-cranial skeleton generally of same proportions as Homo sapiens
Homo erectus(H. ergaster) First fully-terrestrial Hominidae Early forms well-adapted for open savanna foraging and scavenging Larger and more complex brains associated with Acheulian tradition and “intentional scavenging” First Hominid to leave African continent
Homo erectus(H. ergaster) Probably following grazing animals and their predators on open savanna environments Key site: Dmanisi Asian forms appear by at least 1.0mya India, Zhoukoudian (China), Java
Homo erectus(H. ergaster) Homo erectus able to spread out to many different environments on two “continents” (Africa and Asia)
Homo floresiensis Also called LB1, The “Hobbit” Flores Island 18,000ya One mostly complete individual, a few pieces of a second individual
Homo floresiensis Cranial capacity: 380cc Skull similar in shape to Homo erectus (but not exactly the same) About 3 feet tall Found with evidence of hunting tools, fire, camps
Homo floresiensis Separate species? Population of Homo erectus descendants who became small (island rule)? Descendant of earlier forms of Homo? Population of H. sapiens “pygmies” H. sapiens with some condition of dwarfism?
Homo habilis “Handy Man” Homo rudolphensis Found in eastern and southern Africa 2.3 mya - 1.4 mya*  Cranial capacity: 500-750cc  Higher frontal than Australopithecines and Paranthropus  Moderate to high degree of postorbital constriction
Homo habilis  Higher and wider parietals  Larger and more complex brain  “Encephalization”  Associated with: – Greater intelligence – Stone tools – Scavenging behavior
Homo habilis  Prominent to moderate supraorbital ridge Wide zygomatic arch (not as wide as Paranthropus and Australopithecines)  Ratio of face to brain decreases  Flat nasal bridge  Flat upper face  Lower facial prognathism Receding chin  Ushape
Homo habilis  Tooth size reduced compared to Paranthropus and Australopithecines  Deep palate Post-cranial skeleton similar to Australopithecines Long arms, short legs Less than 5 feet tall Under 100 pounds Lived in Woodland-Savanna environments
Homo habilis Survived as general forager and opportunistic scavenger Made simple flake stone tools (Olduwan tradition)
Australopithecus sediba  Southern Africa  2.0 Mya  Transition to Homo?
Homo heidelbergensis • Sometimes called “Early Archaic Homo sapiens” • Found in Africa, Europe, Asia • 780,000ya – 100,000ya (?) • May be more than one species • Transitional group to later forms of Homo? • Moderate to prominent supra-orbital ridge • Moderate nasal bri
Homo heidelbergensis • Cranial capacity: 1200cc - 2000cc • Higher and wider frontal • Moderate post-orbital constriction • Higher, wider, more rounded parietals • Sometimes have a sagittal keel • Face similar to H. erectus • Moderate lower facial prognathism
Homo heidelbergensis • Parabolic dental arcade • Deep palate • Receding chin • Post-cranial skeleton similar to us, although generally more robust
Australopithecines • Orrorin • Ardipithecus • Australopithecus • Found in Africa (mostly eastern, some central and southern) • 6.0 mya to 2.0 mya • Sahelanthropus may or may not be a Hominidae • Cranial capacity: 400- 500cc • Cranial shape: • Low, flat frontal
Australopithecines • High degree of postorbital constriction • Low, narrow parietals • Corresponds to smaller brain, smaller frontal and parietal lobes of brain • Wide zygomatic arch • Prominent supraorbital ridge • Lower facial prognathism • Receding chin
Australopithecines • Moderate canines • Canine diastema • Shallow palate • U-shaped dental arcade • Long arms, long curved fingers • Strong muscle attachments in arm • Suggests arboreal locomotion (climbing, brachiation) important • Short legs • 3.5 to 5.0 feet
Australopithecines • Hips, legs show upright bipedalism • Combination of arboreal climbing and terrestrial bipedalism • “Ardi” • Foot has grasping first digit • Brand new discovery • Southern Africa • 2.0 Mya • Smaller teeth • More rounded cranium • Transition
Homo neanderthalensis • Also called “Late Archaic Homo sapiens” • Homo sapiens neanderthalensis • Neanderthals • “Cavemen” • Found in Europe, Near East, Central Asia • 200,000ya – 30,000ya • Remains often found in caves • Complex tools (Mousterian Tradition)
Homo neanderthalensis • Incl. hunting, use of fire • Cranial capacity 1200- 2000cc • Average 1450cc • Higher, wider frontal and parietals than earlier Hominids • Slight post-orbital constriction • Long and low cranium • Occipital bun
Homo neanderthalensis • Pronounced supraorbital ridge – “double arched” • Prominent nasal bridge • Projecting, bulbous nose • Mid-facial prognathism • Parabolic dental arcade • Deep palate • Distinctive, angled wear on incisors • TMJ disease (arthritis) • Non-pr
Homo neanderthalensis • Post-cranial skeleton: short and stocky • Hypermuscular • Long bones thicker, stronger than equivalent-sized H. sapiens • Adaptation for cold climates? • Adaptation for confrontational hunting?
Homo neanderthalensis • Behavioral complexity – Hunting – Complex tools – Fire – Burials – Care – Cannibalism (?)
Homo neanderthalensis • Mating with Homo sapiens ? • Evidence for about 4% admixture in Europeans and Asians • Out-competed by Homo sapiens? • Harsh glacial conditions ? • Warfare with Homo sapiens ? • Disease introduced by Homo sapiens ?
Homo neanderthalensis • They went extinct • How? • Evolved into Homo sapiens? • No!
Homo sapiens Anatomically modern humans Homo sapiens sapiens Modern Homo sapiens Found earliest in Africa (200,000ya) Multi-regional evolution H. sapiens develop from local populations of H. erectus African origin (Replacement)
Homo sapiens H. sapiens developed in Africa, later spread out to rest of old world, replacing previous groups of Homo.
Homo sapiens- evidence H. heidelbergensis and contemporaries are transitional forms from H. erectus to H. sapiens, support Multi-Regional model (sort of). Fossils, mtDNA, Y-chromosome, artifacts all support Replacement model
Homo sapiens- Siberian finger Finger bones found in Denisova cave in Siberia Bones are approx. 40,000 ya Hominid in Siberia earlier than previously thought DNA does not match with H. sapiens or H. neanderthalensis Who is it? H. heidelbergensis? H. erectus?
Homo sapiens Spread to Asia by at least 70,000ya Spread to Australia/New Guinea by at least 50,000ya Spread to Europe by at least 45,000ya Spread to Americas by at least 15,000ya
Homo sapiens  Cranial capacity: 1200 – 1800 cc  Average 1350cc  High, prominent frontal  Slight/minimal post-orbital constriction  High and wide parietals  Globular cranium
Homo sapiens  Larger and more complex brain  Associated with: – Greater intelligence – Complex stone tools (Upper Paleolithic tradition) – Behavioral complexity  Slight to moderate supra-orbital ridge  Smaller face and bigger brain
Homo sapiens  Minimal lower facial prognathism  Prominent nasal bridge  Projecting nose  Parabolic dental arcade  Tooth size reduced  Deep palate  Mental eminence (projecting chin)
Paranthropus-key features • Sometimes called “robust Australopithecines” • Some use genus name “Australopithecus” • Eastern and southern Africa • 2.5mya to 1.0mya • Cranial capacity 400- 500cc • Low, flat frontal • High degree of postorbital constriction • Low, narrow pa
Paranthropus-key features • Similar in size and shape to Australopithecine cranium • Prominent sagittal crest • Attachment for temporalis muscle • Wide and flaring zygomatic arch • Attachment for masseter muscle • Pronounced supraorbital ridge • Flat nasal bridge •
Paranthropus • U-shaped dental arcade • Deep palate • Lower facial prognathism • Receding chin • Incisors and canines reduced compared to Australopithecines • Post-canine megadontia • Large maxillae and mandible • Specialized for “massive chewing comple
Paranthropus • Post-cranial skeleton very similar to Australopithecines • Long arms and fingers for climbing • Short legs • Less than 5 feet tall, under 100 pounds • Sexual dimorphism similar to Australopithecines
Paranthropus • Lived in Woodland-Savanna environments • No evidence of tools
Miocene geological epoch of the Neogene Period and extends from about 23.03 to 5.332 million years ago (Ma). The Miocene was named by Sir Charles Lyell.
Pleistocene geological time period from 1.6 mya to 10,000 ya with a series of glacial advances and retreats
Pliocene period in the geologic timescale that extends from 5.332 million to 2.588[2] million years before present. It is the second and youngest epoch of the Neogene Period in the Cenozoic Era.
Hominidae No tails/Bipeds/y-5 lower molar pattern
Laetoli footprints site in Tanzania, dated to the Plio-Pleistocene and famous for its hominin footprints, preserved in volcanic ash
Lucy "Australopithecus afarensis" -3.2 mya found by Donald Johanson -discovered in 1974 at Hadar in the Awash Valley of Ethiopia's Afar Depression.
Donald Johanson found Australopithecus afarensis; found Lucy -found 1974
Raymond Dart found 1st evidence of hominin evolution in 1925 @ S. Africa
Mary Leakey found Laetoli footprints in 1976
Richard Leakey Paleoanthropologist, suggested that stone tools allowed hominins to more quickly cut meat and bbnes off a carcass
Tim White American Paleoanthropologist and Professor of Integrative Biology at the University of California, Berkeley. He is most famous for his work on Lucy as Australopithecus afarensis
Louis Leakey was a British archaeologist and naturalist whose work was important in establishing human evolutionary development in Africa.
Eugene Dubois Dutch physician 1st finds of H. erectus in Java (1891; solo river fossils
Olduwan Industry first discovered by Louis Leakey/ stone tool industry that was used by H. habilis during the Lower Paleolithic period./2.6 million years ago up until 1.7 mya/named after Olduvai Gorge
Acheulian Industry Africa and much of West Asia, South Asia and Europe./Acheulean tools are typically found with Homo erectus remains/
Mousterian Industry used by Homo neanderthalensis/named after Le Moustier, France/careful retouching of flakes taken off cores/sharpened and shaped by additional flaking
Upper Paleolithic Industry knapped stone tools,Late Stone Age) is the third and last subdivision of the Paleolithic or Old Stone Age as it is understood in Europe, Africa and Asia./ 40,000 and 10,000 years ago; used by h. sapiens
Hand axe bifacial Stone tool typical of the lower (Acheulean) and middle Palaeolithic (Mousterian),Older hand axes were produced by direct percussion with a stone hammer and can be distinguished by their thickness and a sinuous border.
Post-canine megadontia molars and premolars which is found in early hominid ancestors such as Paranthropus aethiopicus. It is considered to show a largely vegetarian diet,[1] as the robust size would result from the eating of tough, hard shelled food such as seeds and nuts.
Post-orbital constriction narrowing of the cranium (skull) just behind the eye sockets
canine diastema A space or gap between the canine and adjacent teeth. It allows room for the point of the protruding opposite canine tooth and thereby permits the upper and lower teeth to bite together.
dental arcade The rows of teeth in the upper and lower jaws.
Encephalization amount of brain mass exceeding that related to an animal's total body mass.
Cranial Capacity a measure of the volume of the interior of the cranium
Occipital torus a horizontal bar of bone seen above the angularity in the occipital.
Supraorbital ridge brow ridge, refer to a bony ridge located above the eye sockets of all primates
mid facial prognathism middle and lower parts of the face are positioned far forward relative to the braincase
retro molar space space at the rear of a mandible, between the back of the last molar and the anterior edge of the ascending ramus where it crosses the alveolar margin./ caused the lower toothrow to move forward,/ pear shaped
mid facial prognathism middle and lower parts of the face are positioned far forward relative to the braincase
retro molar space space at the rear of a mandible, between the back of the last molar and the anterior edge of the ascending ramus where it crosses the alveolar margin./ caused the lower toothrow to move forward,/ pear shaped
occipital bun prominent bulge, or projection, of the occipital bone at the back of the skull.-Neanderthal crania
Sagittal crest ridge of bone running lengthwise along the midline of the top of the skull.= strong jaw muscles/erves primarily for attachment of the temporalis muscle;y Paranthropus
Zygomatic arch cheek bone is formed by the zygomatic process of temporal bone (a bone extending forward from the side of the skull, over the opening of the ear) and the temporal process of the zygomatic bone (the side of the cheekbone)
Projectile point object that was hafted to a projectile, such as a spear, dart, or arrow, or perhaps used as a knife.
Sagittal keel thickening of bone on part or all of the midline of the frontal bone, or parietal bones where they meet along the sagittal suture, or on both bones.- H. erectus/ H. heidelbergensis= probably served as an armour against shock to the roof of the skull
Frontal Bone located at the front of the head / skull and corresponds to the region known as the forehead.= protection of the brain and support of the face. Motor Functions Higher Order Functions Planning Reasoning Judgement Impulse Control Memory
Parietal lobes good for: Cognition Information Processing Pain and Touch Sensation Spatial Orientation Speech Visual Perception
Mental eminence chin. people sometimes hold it when they think
Temporal lines 2 nearly parallel ridges/lines on each side of the skull that begin as a single ridge on the temporal bone, run upward and backward from the zygomatic process above the temporal foss oa, divide into upper and lower lines, and continue on the parietal bone
Temporalis muscle large, thin fan-shaped muscle located in the side of the skull above and in front of the ear. elevate the mandible (lower jaw) and so close the mouth.
Masseter muscle It originates in the lateral part of the cheek bone (zygomatic arch) and inserts in the angle of the mandible. It acts to raise the jaw and clench the teeth.- contract strongly just in front of the lower ears.
Valgus angle The angle the femur (upper leg bone) makes relative to the knee. About 90 degrees in apes, less in bipeds.
Human Bipedalism shorter, broader pelvis; human femur (upper leg bone) forms an angles of less than 90° with the knee; knee fully extended; lower leg bones are longer; joint surfaces are enlarged
ilium uppermost and largest bone of the pelvis
foramen magnum hole in the bottom of the skull through which the spinal cord passes in order to connect to the brain by merging with the brain's lowermost portion, the medulla oblongata; blood vessels and tendons pass through; helps determine if head was horz./vert.
Orrorin tugenesis oldest hominid; Central Africa; 6 mya
Sahelanthropus tchadensis Central Africa; 6-7 mya
Phylogeny history of the evolution of a species or group, especially in reference to lines of descent and relationships among broad groups of organisms.
lascaux cave in southwestern France famous for its Upper Paleolithic cave paintings; discovered on September 12, 1940; painting of ox, horses and a deer.
cerebral cortex memory, attention, perceptual awareness, thought, language, and consciousness.2–4 mm (0.08–0.16 inches) thick; outer part of cerebrum; ayer of the brain often referred to as gray matter.
nuchal crest/ nuchal ridge horizontal ridge of bone where large neck muscles attach to the back of the skull.
Created by: 1065480130