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ANTH 1000 Exam 1

5 subdisciplines of anthropology 1. archaeology 2. physical/biological anthropology 3. linguistics 4. cultural anthropology 5. applied anthroplogy
Archaeology Looks at the material culture of past human behavior • Food production • Technology • Settlement patterns • Identity Can also be divided into • Prehistoric Archaeology • Historic Archaeology
Paleoanthropology deals with human evolution
primatology looks at non-human primates as models for evolution
Biocultural Anthropology and Genetics looks as human variation, contemporary population studies, and the study of skeletons and teeth
Cultural Anthropology Studies contemporary cultures and the diversity of culture through time and space Also looks at • Ethnographic fieldwork • Cross-cultural similarities: Big picture
applied anthropology The practical application of anthropological techniques, methods, and theory Examples: • Medical anthropology/public health • Forensic anthropology • Cultural resources management
anthropology the study of humans as biological organisms, dealing with the emergence and evolution of humans and with contemporary biological variations among human populations
scientific knowledge not based on traditional (folk) wisdom, but it is based on the natural observable world. It is broadly applicable (cross-cultural) and you can generate a hypothesis using this type of knowledge
scientific method Uses observable testable data to generate a prediction and thus a hypothesis
hypothesis a testable proposition about a natural phenomenon
theory hypothesis that holds up to repeated testing over a very long period of time
Great Chain of Being • Life forms were “fixed” and all forms found on Earth were placed there by god o Exploration changed these perceptions
Law of Superposition Nicholas Steno argued that the earth’s sediments were deposited in layers from oldest to youngest
Carolus Linnaeus Developed a taxonomy of living species • Based on structure and form His major contributions were • Classification • Nomenclature
Erasmus Darwin believed all life originated in the sea and that we all had a common ancestor
Jean Baptiste Lamarck • Individuals respond to environment • Law of inheritance and Acquired Characteristics (Use and Disuse)
Charles Darwin English naturalist who, at the age of 22, began fiver years of travel on the HMS Beagle Based on observations, he suggested that species descended from other species under the influence of environmental factors
Variational Evolution In each generation, more offspring are produced than can possibly survive. These offspring exhibit variation some of these variations are better suited (i.e. more fit) for survival
evolution A change in allele frequency from one generation to the next • Allele frequencies are indicator of the genetic makeup of an interbreeding group of individuals known as a population
natural selection provides directional change in allele frequency relative to specific environmental factors. If the environment changes, selection pressures also change.
mutation a molecular alteration in genetic material. For a mutation to have evolutionary significance it must occur in a gamete (sex cell). Such mutations will be carried on to one of the individual’s chromosomes
gene flow the exchange of genes between populations. If individuals move temporarily and mate in the new population, they may not necessarily remain in the population.
genetic drift directly related to population size. Occurs when some individuals contribute a disproportionate share of genes to succeeding generations. Drift may occur solely because the population is small
primates group that contains prosimians (including lemurs, lorises, galagos and tarsiers) and simians (monkeys and apes).
Humans areare Anthropoids, Hominoids, and Primates
What does it mean to be mammal? Four chambered heart Endothermic (able to regulate our own body temperature) Ability to lactate and feed young
When do primates appear? 65 million years ago (Cenozoic period) right at the end of the dinosaurs dying out,
Reliance on vision Snout reduction, Reduces sense of smell, Eyes frontally rotated, Stereoscopic vision (we have depth/distance perception) • Not fully developed in prosimians
Prosimians Lemurs. Have eyes that are further apart, Bigger ears, More pronounced snout, Scent marking, Eyes vulnerable on the side
New World Monkeys arboreal and have a prehensile tail. Eyes closer together, Reduced ears and snout, Eyes protected by socket
Manual dexterity opposable thumb, all primates have this
power grip simple grasping motion (like holding a water bottle)
precision grip sewing, typing, writing, playing an instrument (this is only present in higher primates)
Major Divisions of Primates prosimi (lemurs) and anthropoids (new world monkeys, old world monkeys, and apes)
Pongo orangutans
Pan chimpanzees and bonobos
old world monkeys ground dwelling, tail used for balance. example: baboon
Hominoids apes. no external tail, specialized Y5 dental cusp, Incisors for nipping and biting, Canines (tearing and shredding), Pre-molars. can rotate arms all the way around
knuckle walking locomotive pattern of primates such as the chimpanzee and gorilla in which the weight of the upper part of the body is supported on the thickly padded knuckles of the hands
Defining Human Behavior 1. Tool making 2. Language 3. Hunting large animals 4. Completely terrestrial 5. Gender-role specialization 6. Long offspring dependency period
Hominids a group of hominoids (apes) that includes humans and direct ancestors
Distinctive Hominid Traits Fully bipedal Power and precision grip Large and complex brain, particularly in the cerebral cortex Females may engage in intercourse year round Female-male bonding Teeth reflect omnivorous diet
Primate Behavior Learning Tools Predation and hunting Aggression and resources Sharing and cooperation Mating and kinship
Key Features of Early Hominids 1. Bipedal and varies in strategies 2. Relatively small brains compared to Homo 3. Large teeth, particularly the back teeth (Ardi) 4. Thick to very thick enamel on the molars
Major Hominid Clades • Basal hominids (Ardipithecus) • Gracile (Australopithecine) • Robusts (often called Paranthropus)
Bipedal Adaptation Traits in the skeleton that tell us about walking erect • Spine connects at the base of the skull instead of the back • Hips more bowl shaped • Change in pelvis shape • Change in foot structure • Angle of the femur comes in and down
Hominid Dental Adaptations Midfacial flattening Reduction of canines Gradual loss of diastema Shape of dental arcade
Top reasons that Hominids walked upright Hands are free for carrying Thermoregulation (cooling) Visual surveillance/predation Long-distance walking
relative dating determines only whether an object is older or younger than other objects
Stratigraphy: type of relative dating. based on the law of superposition, that a lower stratum (layer) is older than a higher stratum
Chronometric (absolute) dating provides an estimate of age in years based on radioactive decay
Potassium/argon (K/Ar) dating: involves the decay of potassium into argon gas. K/Ar have a half like of 1.25 billion years
Carbon 14 Dating a radiometric method commonly used by archeologists. Carbon 14 has a half-life of 5730 years
Pilo-Pleistocene Hominids: 200 specimens from South Africa and 300+ from East Africa Divided into 4 broad groupings • Set 1: Basal Hominids – Ardipithecus ramidus • Set 2: Australopithecus/Paranthrops • Set 3: Early Homo
Ardipithecus Ramidus Adaptation to a mosaic environment • Bipedal but not like Australopithecine • Terrestrial and arboreal • Diet is more omnivorous (more than chimps) • Sexual dimorphism not marked • Small canines and honing triad o Pair bonding? o Less male aggress
Australopithecus afarensis "Lucy" and Dikika baby Large canines, larger than ramidus 420cc brain case (larger) Lower body is very bipedal Foramen magnum more straight under skull Femur is humanlike 4ft tall and 75lbs on average Sexual dimorphism Fingers very different from
Laetoli (footprint) 3. 5 to 3.7 million years ago 75-foot tail of footprints walking side by side • Evidence of walking upright • Volcanic eruption that caused the ground to be covered in ash • Shows evidence on an in line big toe
Paranthropus boisei “zinj” Sagital crest for attachment of muscles Post-orbital constriction Relatively smaller brain case Very different teeth • Very large flat molars • Vegetarian • Adapted for also chewing seeds and nuts o There is also a South African version
Australopithecus africanus Found in South Africa Taung baby • Fossilized brain Mrs. Ples (2 mya)
Homo erectus For the first time, fossils are found outside of Africa 1.8 to 400,000 mya Cranial size 900 to 1,000cc Sagital keel Hump of bone instead of ridge Brow ridges Decreased postorbital constriction Base of the skull is very flat
Neanderthals 130,000 to 28,000 years ago Found in 1856 in the Neander Valley in Germany Glacial period caused extreme adaptations Tool use and burial of the dead
Anatomically Modern Homo sapiens Definite chin Flat forehead Sexual dimorphism Males have more developed brow ridges 1,200 cc cranial capacity Rounded cranial vault
Paranthropus robustus: the nutcracker
Created by: asculpepper
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