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ANT 1510-first exam

The basics learned in first few weeks of Anthro 101

QuestionAnswer
What is Anthropology? The study of all peoples and cultures in all the time periods that humans existed.
What are the 4/5 fields of anthropology? Physical/biological anthropology Cultural anthropology Linguistic anthropology Archaeology Applied anthropology
Explain physical anthro in detail. Physical anthropology is the study of humans as biological organisms. They study the variations within human beings, genetics, evolution, primates, and forensics.
Explain archaeology in detail. Archaeology is the study of humans and their cultures through their material remains. Pre-historic archaeology studies cultures that were pre-literate.Ancient past. Historic archaeology supplements written records by excavating remains. CRM
What is CRM? Cultural Resource Management. These archaeologists usually work with governments or non-profits to find and preserve archaeological sites.
What is cultural anthropology? The study of contemporary human cultures. Studies human behavior, thoughts, and feelings.
What is linguistic anthropology? The study of how languages are/were formed and how they change over time.
What is applied anthropology? Applied anthropology uses knowledge and practices from the other four fields to address social, economic, and political issues.
What are the steps of the scientific method? Observation Hypothesis Testing Revisit hypothesis Repeat(change if necessary) Theory Report results
Give an example of Observation. Charles Darwin noted that the finches beaks were different.
Example of Hypothesis. Darwin theorized that finches' beak size dictated what seeds it ate.
Example of Testing. Darwin and later scientists saw birds with different beaks all eating the same seeds.
Example of Revisiting hypothesis. Later scientists concluded that beak size had nothing to do with what the birds ate.
Example of Repeat. David Lack noted that birds with similar beaks didn't live on the same islands together. The Grant team observed the finches in the dry season, and noted that when food was scarce, beak size did determine what seeds each bird could eat.
Example of Theory. The Grants determined that Darwin's original theory was correct.
What evidence do we have of evolution? The resistance of cotton eating moths to pesticides and of bacteria to anti-biotics.
What are the four forces of evolution? Mutation, genetic drift, gene flow, and natural selection.
What is mutation? The improper copying of DNA. Light eye color is a mutation.
What is genetic drift? Chance fluctuations of allele frequency in a population's gene pool. Usually caused by sudden removal of some genes by an accident or disaster. Also Founder Effect, where a small founding population interbreeds.
What is gene flow? The introduction of new alleles from other populations. A cause of gene flow in humans is immigration.
What is the theory of natural selection? For natural selection to occur there must be variation within the population. There must be limited resources, which would cause competition. There is usually selective pressure from an outside source, such as the environment.
What is the role of mutation in evolution? Mutations are changes in alleles over time, sometimes caused by selective pressure from the environment, that help preserve the species.
Why do some mutations persist? Some that cause diseases (sickle cell) remain because they protect the person from other diseases (malaria). The carrier survives and reproduces, creating more carriers.
How are resistant genes passed down through generations? (Example of moths and anti-biotics.) The poison applies selective pressure to the population. Some individuals have immunity, survive, and reproduce. All their offspring are resistant.
Created by: karilou
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