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Cystocentesis A surgical puncture of the urinary bladder with a needle to remove fluid (urine).
Palpation Examination by feeling; one can feel the texture, size, consistency, and location of body parts.
Venipuncture Withdrawing blood from a vein (usually with a needle and syringe).
Febrile Medical term for fever; elevated body temperature.
Pyrexia Medical term for fever Pyr/o = fire
Cyanosis Abnormal condition of blue discoloration; caused by inadequate oxygen levels
Icteric/Icterus or Jaundice Yellow discoloration of the skin and mucous membranes caused by elevated bilirubin levels.
Malignant A cancer that can invade and destroy surrounding normal tissue. Some malignant cancers have the ability to spread (metastasize) to other parts of the body.
Benign A cancer that may grow but does not invade surrounding normal tissue and does not spread (metastasize) to other parts of the body.
Homeostasis The process of maintaining a stable internal body environment.
Idiopathic Of unknown cause.
Recumbancy The medical term for lying down. May be further classified as lateral, sternal/ventral, dorsal, or left/right.
Signalment A description of the animal with information about the animal, including species, breed, age, and sexual status (intact or altered).
Blood Pressure The tension exerted by blood on the arterial walls. It is determined by the energy produced by the heart, arterial wall elasticity, and the volume and viscosity of the blood.
Tachypnea Abnormally rapid respiration RATES
Bradypnea Abnormally slow respiration RATES
Thoracocentesis Puncture of the chest wall with a needle to obtain fluid from the pleural cavity. This fluid may be used for cytological and microbiological examination; also used to drain pleural effusions or to reexpand a collapsed lung
Atelectesis Incomplete expansion of the alveoli; may also mean collapse of a lung
Anorexia Lack or loss of appetite
Aerophagia Swallowing of air
Hypothermia Abnormally low body temperature.
Hyperthermia Abnormally high body temperature.
Normothermic Normal body temperature.
Hepatomegaly Enlargement of the liver
Cardiomegaly Enlargement of the heart
Cardiomyopathy Disease of the heart muscle (2 types); hypertrophic=excessive growth of the left ventricle; dilated=thin-walled left ventricle
Hypotension Low blood pressure
Hypertension High blood pressure
Normotensive Normal blood pressure
Tendon A band of fibrous connective tissue that connects muscle to bone
Ligament A band of fibrous connective tissue that connects one bone to another bone.
Petechia Small, pinpoint hemorrhage lesions.
Ecchymosis Purplish nonelevated patch of bleeding into the skin; also called a bruise.
Pollakiuria Frequent urination.
Polyuria Increase in the amount of urine output or production.
Hematuria Blood in the urine.
Polydipsia Excessive thirst or drinking.
Stomatitis Inflammation of the mouth.
Urinalysis Examination of urine components. (UA) Can tell about pH, leukocytes, erythrocytes, protein, glucose, specific gravity (USG), and other factors.
Mastication Chewing; breaking food into smaller pieces and mixes the ingesta with saliva.
Coprophagia Ingestion of fecal material.
Pyothorax Accumulation of pus in the chest cavity.
Ataxia Without coordination; "stumbling".
Myopathy Abnormal condition or disease of muscle.
Perfusions Blood flow through tissue.
Hypothyroidism Condition of thyroid hormone deficiency. Signs include decreased metabolic rate, poor hair coat, lethargy , and increased sensitivity to cold.
Hyperthyroidism Condition of excessive thyroid hormone. Signs include increased metabolic rate, weight loss, polyuria, and polydipsia.
Pericardial effusion Abnormal accumulation of fluid in the pericardium
Ishemia Lack, or deficiency, of blood supply to an area
Blood flow though the heart... Vena cava-R atrium-R AV/tricuspid-pulmonary semilunar valve-lungs via pulmonary artery-returns thru 4 pulmonary veins-Left atrium-mitral/L AV/bicuspid valve-L ventricle-Aortic semilunar valve-aorta-body
Artery A vessel in which blood flows away from the heart, in the systemic circulation carrying oxygenated blood.
Vein A vessel in which blood flows toward the heart, in the systemic circulation carrying blood that has given up most of its oxygen.
Sinoatrial (SA) node Along with the Purkinje fibers, establishes the basic rhythm of the heart; AKA the "pacemaker" of the heart. SA node is located in the wall of the right atrium near the entrance of the superior vena cava.
Atrioventricular (AV) node Transmits the electrical impulses (received from the SA node) to the bundle of His (AV bundle). Located in the interatrial septum.
Arrhythmia Abnormal heart rhythm
Pyometra Pus in the uterus.
Ovariohysterectomy Surgical removal of the ovaries, uterine tubes, and uterus. "Spay" OHE/OVH
Brachycephalic Head shape that is short, wide; "flat" muzzle (boston terriers, boxers)
Dolichephalic Head shape that is long, narrow (collies, greyhounds)
Mesocephalic Head shape that is proportionate, average width and length (labrador retrievers, beagles)
Vertebral formula Dogs and cats- C7,T13,L7,S3,Cy6-23
Left Atrioventricular valve Left AV vlave, Mitral valve, bicuspid valve; controls the opening between the left atrium and left ventricle.
Right Atrioventricular valve Right AV, tricuspid valve (because it has 3 points, or cusps); controls the opening between the right atrium and right ventricle.
Cranial Toward the head.
Caudal Toward the tail.
Dorsal Refers to the back.
Ventral Refers to the belly or underside of a body part.
Proximal Nearest the midline or nearest to the beginning or a structure.
Distal Farthest from the midline or farthest from a structure.
Rostral Toward the nose-end of the head.
Medial Toward the midline.
Lateral Away from the midline.
Lateral Recumbency Lying down on the side.
Dorsal Recumbency Lying on the back.
Sternal/Ventral Recumbency Lying on the belly or chest.
Midsagittal plane A plane that divides the body into equal left and right halves; aka the median and midline plane(s)
Sagittal plane A plane that divides the body into unequal left and right parts.
Transverse plane A plane that divides the body into cranial and caudal parts; AKA the horizontal plane or cross-section plane. May also be used to describe a perpendicular transection to the long axis of an appendage.
Dorsal plane A plane that divides the body into dorsal (back) and ventral (belly) parts; AKA the Frontal or Coronal plane.
BAR Bright Alert Responsive
QAR Quiet Alert Responsive
RBC Red Blood Cell (Erythrocyte)
WBC White Blood Cell (Leukocyte)
CRT Capillary Refill Time (<2 seconds)
HX History
DX Diagnosis
NPO Nothing by mouth (non per os)
PO orally (per os)
IV Intravenous
IM Intramuscular
SQ Subcutaneous
SID Once daily (q24h)
BID Twice daily (bis in die)
TID Three times daily (ter in die)
SX Surgery
TPR Temperature Pulse Respieration
PE Physical examination
AU Both ears
OU Both eyes
AS Left ear
AD Right ear
OS Left eye
OD Right eye (also Overdose)
Adren/o Adrenal/o Adrenal glands
Nephr/o Ren/o Kindey
Myel/o Spinal cord or bone marrow; "White substance"
Onc/o Tumor
Immune/o Protected, safe, or immune
Urethr/o Urethra
Hemat/o Hem/o Blood
Cardi/o Heart
Chrondr/o Chondri/o Cartilage
Pharyng/o Throat (Pharynx)
Pneum/o, pneumon/, pneu- Lung or Air
Cyst/o cyst- -cyst Urinary bladder Bag or Bladder
Gastr/o Stomach
Hepat/o Liver
Cost/o Rib(s)
Angi/o Angi- Vessel
Aden/o Gland
Oste/o Oss/e Oss/i Bone
Hypoadrenocortism (Addison's disease) Disorder caused by deficient adrenal cortex function
Hyperadrenocortism (Cushings) Disorder caused by excessive adrenal cortex production of glucocorticoid, resulting in polyuria, hyperdipsia, and redistribution of body fat.
Bradycardia Abnormally slow heart RATE
IVDD Intervertebral Disc Disease: rupture or protrusion of the cushioning disc
GDV Gastric Dilation Volvulus: Condition usually seen in deep-chested nanines in which the stomach fills with air, expands, and twists on itself.
USG Urine Specific Gravity: Measurement that reflects the amount of wastes, minerals, and solids in urine.
Peri- Around
-lysis Separation or breakdown (ex. Urinalysis - separation of the urine into its constituents).
Endo- Within or inside
-ectomy Surgical removal
-(o)stomy Surgically created opening
-(o)tomy Cutting into
-pathy Disease (ex. enteropathy = disease of the small intestine)
-pexy Suture to stabilize (ex. gastropexy = surgically stablilizing the stomach to the abdominal wall)
Ab- Away from (the midline)
Add- Towards (the midline)
Tachy- Abnormally fast or rapid
Brady- Abnormally slow
Epi- upon, above, on, upper
What does the skeletal system do? Forms the framework that supports and protects the body. Within the bone is the red marrow, which forms RBCs, WBC, and clotting cells. Joints aid movement, cartilage protects the ends of bones where they meet.
What does the muscular system do? Contact and produce movement; ambulation (running, walking); contractions of organs or tissues that result in normal body functions.
What does the gastrointestinal system do? Responsible for the intake and digestion of food and water, the absorption of nutrients, and the elimination of solid waste products.
What is the function of the small intestine? Digestion of food and absorption for animals not needing extensive fermentation. Once food is digested, it forms a milky fluid (chyle) which is absorbed through the intestinal wall and travels via the thoracic duct where it passes into the veins
What is the function of the large intestine? Further absorption of ingesta, contains microbes to aid in digestion, leads to eventual expulsion of waste material.
What does the urinary system do? Main responsibility is the removal of wastes from the body by constantly filtering blood. Major waste product is urea, which is filtered by the kidneys; maintains balance of water, electrolytes, and acids in body fluids and removes excess fluids.
What does the cardiovascular system do? Delivers oxygen, nutrients, and hormones to the body tissues and transports waste products; "circulatory system" is divided into systemic circulation and pulmonary circulation.
What does the respiratory system do? Brings oxygen from the air into the body for delivery via the blood cells; picks up CO2 and carries it back to the lungs where it is expelled.
Where should the pulse be taken from?
What is the term when two bones are connected?
Draw three recognizable deflections waves on an ECG.
Canine skeleton/horse leg bones and joints
Created by: ahaggan001



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