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Urinalysis

Clin Path

QuestionAnswer
What urinary system disorders are indicators for a urinalysis? Renal disease/failure, bacterial infection, hematuria, neoplasia, urolithiasis, and crystalluria
What non-urinary disorders are indicators for a urinalysis? diabetes mellitus, diabetes insipidus, liver failure, severe hemolytic disease, systemic acidosis and pre-renal azotemia
What term refers to an abnormal concentration of urine constituents in the blood caused by generalized renal disease? uremia
What is the most common type of diabetes insipidus? central
What 6 things can influence the value of a urinalysis? diet, patient condition, sample method, sample handling and preservation, test methods, and medications
What two things must be present for a UTI? WBCs and bacteria
What term refers to the act of passing urine? micturition
What are the 4 methods of collecting a urine sample? voided, bladder expression, catheterization and cystocentesis
What type of collection method is also called free catch? voided
What is the easiest method for obtaining a urine sample? voided
What type of voided sample is considered to be the least contaminated? midstream
What 2 collection methods are used for culture and sensitivity testing? catheterization and cystocentesis
What position should the animal be placed in to collect a sample via manual expression? standing or lateral recumbency
What are the 2 types of catheters used for urine collection? polypropylene and red rubber
How are red rubber catheters measured? FR (French)
What tool is required when placing a urinary catheter in female patients (in addition to usual items)? speculum
What type of cells should on expect when placing a urinary catheter? epithelial cells
What is the method of choice for culture and sensitivity? cystocentesis
When performing a cystocentesis you should use what gauge needle? What height of needle? And what size syringe? 20-22g; 1-1.5 inch needle, and 10ml syringe
What position should an animal be placed for cystocentesis? standing, lateral recumbency or dorsal recumbency
What location should the needle be placed when performing a cystocentesis? caudal abdomen on midline
What test should always be performed prior to urine being refrigerated? specific gravity
Urine samples allowed to sit at room temperature will have ___________ glucose and bilirubin. decreased
Urine samples allowed to sit at room temperature will have ___________ pH? increased
True or false. Casts are formed in urine samples that are allowed to sit at room temperature. False (Breakdown)
How long can a sample be refrigerated for? 6-12 hours
______________ can form or degrade in a urine sample due to refrigeration. crystals
A preservative is used for samples required to be held for how long? >12 hours
What is the preservative of choice? 40% formalin
How much formalin is added per 1 ounce of urine for preserving? 1 gtt
What are the 4 most commonly used preservatives for urine samples? thymol, toluene and 5% phenol
What 5 pieces of information should a urinalysis report always include? patient information, collection technique, date/time of collection, method of preservation and completed results
What are the 3 components to a urinalysis? physical, chemical and microscopic findings
What transparency term refers refers to the snowglobe effect seen in urine samples with the naked eye? flocculent
What are the 5 physical properties of urine? odor, color, transparency, specific gravity and volume
What do sensible losses refer to? urine (Measurable)
What do insensible losses refer to? respiratory or feces (Unmeasurable)
What do contemporary losses refer to? Vomit and diarrhea
Urine should be determined over a ______ time period. 24 hour
What is the normal daily urine output? 20-40ml/kg
What term refers to an increase in daily urine output? polyuria
What term refers to urinating more frequently? pollakiuria
What consituent of urine gives it its color? urochrome
The _____ concentrated the urine the higher the specific gravity. more
What 2 species naturally have cloudy urine? horses and rabbits
What 2 things cause horses and rabbits to have naturally cloudy urine? mucus and calcium carbonate
What makes urine green and foamy? bile pigments
What is the #1 reason for bile pigments in the urine? cholestasis
What makes urine dark brown or black? myoglobin
What condition affects active animals after excessive muscle breakdown and causes them to pee dark brown/black? "Tying Up" or Exertional Rhabdomyolysis
True or false. Odor is diagnostic. False
Urine of what 3 animals is naturally pungent? male cats, goats and pigs
What urine odor is produced from bacteria growth? ammonia
What gives urine a sweet/fruity smell? ketones
What are the 3 conditions associated with ketones in the urine? DM, ketosis in cows and pregnancy disease in sheep
What is the result of fat breakdown? ketones
Specific gravity is the weight of a liquid compared to what? distilled water
What are the 3 methods to determine USG? refractometer, reagent strips and urinometer
Increased temp causes ______________ specific gravity. increased
What is the range of USG in the dog? 1.001-1.060 (1.025)
What is the range of USG in the cat? 1.001-1.080 (1.030)
What species has a greater urine concentrating ability? cat
What is the specific gravity of glomerular filtrate? 1.010
What occurs when USG approaches that of glomerular filtrate? isothenuria
What is the #1 cause of hypersthenuria? dehydration
What percentage of urine consists of water? 95%
What chemical property is on human reagent strips that isnt normally on vet reagent strips? nitrite
What does pH measure? hydrogen ion concentration
What pH is considered to be acidic? below 7.0
What pH is considered to be basic? above 7.0
What is the normal pH of dogs and cats? 6.0-7.0
What is the #1 factor that influences the pH of urine? diet
What type of pH will the urine of an animal with a high protein diet have? acidic
What type of pH will the urine of an animal with a plant diet have? basic
What type of pH is caused by vomiting, severe diarrhea, fever and starvation? acidic
True or false. Only the cystocentesis method can cause protein in the urine. false (All but free catch)
True or false. Protein is normal in the urine. false
What is the primary protein measured with reagent strips? albumin
What test is used to confirm significant amounts of protein in the urine? UPC (Urine protein/creatinine)
What test should never be performed if bacteria is present in the urine? UPC
What breed is affected by fanconi syndrome? basenji
What are examples of pre-renal causes of proteinuria? shock, CHF, fever, increased exercise, overflow of transient protein from the blood
What is another name for glucosuria? glycosuria
What part of the kidney filters? glomerulus
What part of the kidney absorbs? tubules
What drugs cause false positives of glucose in the urine? Vit C, morphine, aspirin, penicillin and other antibiotics
True or false. Tablet glucose tests detect ANY sugar type in the urine. True
What 2 conditions besides diabetes mellitus are associated with glucosuria? cushings and pancreatitis
Created by: fadedfaithless