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Vet 1250 Week 3

The Endocrine System

QuestionAnswer
secreting into epithelial surfaces means: exocrine
secreting directly into the blood stream or lypmh system means: endocrine
powerful hormone found in a wide variety of body tissues; often produced in a tissue and diffuse only a short distance prostoglandins (PGs)
most hormones are composed of ____ or chains of amino acids; others are _____ or fatty substances derived from cholesterol proteins; steroids
what is the main function of the endocrine system homeostasis
What are the chemical messengers that travel through the blood stream to tissues where they produce their effects hormones
What does the negative feedback system do controls hormone production
These hormones bind to receptors within the target cell nucleus and influence cell activity by acting on DNA steroid hormones
This structure is the ventral part of the brain; nervous and endocrine function hypothalamus
tiny blood vessel system that attaches the hypothalamus to the anterior pituitary gland portal system
releasing these cells increase production; inhibiting these cells slow production modified neurons
these connect the hypothalamus to the posterior pituitary gland nerve fibers
master endocrine gland; very tiny housed in small pocket in the skull pituitary gland
GH, TSH, ACTH, FS, LH, Prolactin, and MSH are produced by the pituitary gland
nervous tissue; only stores and releases hormones posterior pituitary
glandular tissue; produces hormones anterior pituitary
This hormone promotes body growth in young animals GH
GH deficiency can lead to dwarfism
This hormone stimulates the growth and developments of the thyroid gland TSH
This hormone stimulates the growth and development of the cortex of the adrenal gland and the release of its hormones ACTH
outer portion of pituitary gland cortex
inner portion of pituitary gland adrenal medulla
This hormone stimulates the growth and development of follicles in the ovaries; spermatogenesis in males FSH
smallest to largest follicles, aka: primary to secondary to graafian (mature)
decrease in FSH causes increase in LH
ovulation will occur when this hormone reaches its peak luteinizing hormone (LH)
This part of the ovary produces progesterone corpus luteum
This area of the ovary produces estrogen follicles
This hormone helps trigger and maintain lactation; no known affect on male prolactin
This hormone is associated with color changes in reptiles, fish, and amphibians melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH)
This gland stores ADH and oxytocin posterior pituitary
This hormone causes contractions in uterus during time of breeding and paturition oxytocin
This hormone helps prevent loss of large quantities of water in the urine and causes the kidneys to reabsorb more H2O causing urine to be more concentrated ADH
deficiency of ADH leads to diabetes insipidus
the two lobes located on either side of larynx thyroid gland
This hormone regulates the body's metabolic rate, regulates rate at which body burns nutrients to produce energy and helps heat the body thyroid hormone
This hormone prevents hypercalcemia by encouraging excess be deposited in bones; maintains homeostasis of blood calcium levels calcitonin
non-inflammatory enlargment of the thyroid gland result from an iodine deficient diet is called Goiter
slowing of metabolism is called hypothyroidism
excess metabolism is called hyperthyroidism
This structure consists of pale nodules in on or near the thyroid gland parathyroid
This hormone helps maintain blood calcium homeostasis and prevents hypocalcemia parathyroid hormone
located near the cranial end of kidney adrenal glands
glandular tissue producing glucocorticoids, mineralocorticoid, and sex hormones adrenal cortex
nervous tissue producing epinephrine and norepinephrine adrenal medulla
This hormone has an effect on blood glucose levels glucocorticoid hormones
This hormone regulates the level of electrolytes; targets the kidney to reabsorb sodium and exchanges potassium and hydrogen ions to be excreted in urine mineralocorticoid hormones
estrogens and androgens are what type of hormones sex hormones
hormone secretion by this organ is under control of the sympathetic nervous system adrenal medulla
these hormones help prepare the body for the fight or flight response epinephrine and nor-epinephrine
This organ has both exocrine and endocrine function and is located by the duodenum pancreas
This hormone stimulates liver cells to convert glycogen to glucose glucagon
This hormone causes glucose, amino acids, and fatty acids in the bloodstream to be absorbed for energy; decrease in glucose levels insulin
This hormone diminishes activity of the GI tract somatostatin
This organ is housed in the scrotum; clumps of interstitial cells that produce androgens (testosterone) testes
What is the formation of sex cells by sex organs called gonadotropien
This organ is located in the abdomen near the kidneys; produce estrogens and progestins ovaries
once ___ peaks ovulation will occur LH
What hormone helps maintain pregnancy progestins
What organ produces erythropoietin kidney
What does erythropoietin do stimulates RBC production
This organ produces Gastrin stomach
gastriin does what? stimulated by the presence of food and secretes hydrochloric acid and digestive enzymes
This organ contains secretin; cholecystokinin small intestine
This hormone stimulates the pancreas to secrete sodium bicarb secretin
This hormone stimulates the release of digestive enzymes from the pancreas cholecystokinin
What organ produces chorionic gonadotropin in humans and horses placenta
This gland helps kick start the immune system (hardly seen in adults); thymosin and thymopoietin thymus
This gland produces melatonin which affects moods and the wake/sleep cycle pineal body
this hormone regulates metabolism of proteins, carbs, and lipids Somatotropin
Created by: maiken