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single cell organisms without nucleus
multicellular organisms
bacteria is a
protozoa are
outermost layer of a mammalian cell
surrounds the nucleus
barrier between the environment and cytoplasm
governs movement of atoms and molecules in and out of cells
another name for two layers of phospholipid molecules
fatty acid tails are located
fatty acid tails are hydro phobic or philic?
heads are hydro phobic or philic
suspends proteins, constantly changing
lipid soluble materials pass through the membrane with EASE or DIFFICULTY
proteins that span the width of the membrane
membranes bound to one side or the other of the membrane
glycocalyx is made of what?
glycoproteins job is to
glycolipids job is to
cilia and flagella originate from
move in waves, propel fluid, mucus and debris
attached to individual cells to propel cell forward
give support to the cell
cytoskeleton is composed of
list 8 organelles
powerhouse of the cell, creates energy
site of protein synthesis for intracellular and extracellular use
has ribosomes on the surface
involved in protein production
involved in lipid production and storage
ER is continuous with what 2 things?
responsible for modification, packaging and storage of molecules
formed by golgi, breakdowns nutrients for use
contain enzymes for detoxification
convert free radicals to hydrogen peroxide
convert hydrogen peroide to water
engulfed metabolic stubstances
found in pairs, form bases of cilia & flagella, help organize spindle fibers
maintains heredity information and controls cell activity
4 parts of the nucleus
contains nuclear pores
made up of DNA and histones
location where ribosomal subunits are made
genetic material
acids and bases are types of
excretory processes that require energy
excretory processes that do not require energy
movement of molecules from area of high concentration to low concentration
diffusion is dependent on what 3 things
movement of molecules through membrae with assistance of integral/carrier proten
does facilitated diffusion require energy?
movement of water through membrane from area of high water concentration to low water concentration
force of water moving from one side of the membrane to the other
osmosis or diffusion requires a selective membrane?
same concentration as intracellular fluid
fluid is more concentrated than cytoplasm
cytoplasm is more concentrated than fluid
cells burst qhen put in
cells crenate when put in
requires energy to move material
changes in distribution of charged particles on either side of a membrane
two types of endocytosis
cell engulfing solid material
cell engulfing liquid (cell drinking)
movement of material out of the cell via vesicles
process of cell division
phase when cell is growing, maturing and differentiating
period between cell divisions
interphase has 3 stages, what are they
when chromatin strands for chromosomes
when nuclear envelope breaks down
when chromosomes line up in center
when centromeres attach to spindle fibers
when chromatids are pulled apart
the thing that pulls the chromatids apart
where the cytoplasm constricts
when chromatin begins to unravel at the poles of the cell
when the nuclear envelope appears
the end of this phase is marked by cytokinesis
process by which genetic information on DNA is copied to mRna
process by which protein is created from mRNA
occur when there are errors in DNA replication
anything causing a genetic mutation
Created by: rxkathleen