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Vet 1250 Week 2

Chapter 8 Cardiovascular System

supplies heart with nutrition coronary vessel
pump with functions of delivering oxygen/nutrients; remove waste; transport hormones; deliver antibodies heart
between heart and lungs; transports deoxygenated blood to the lungs to get oxygen then back to heart pulmonary circulation
carries oxygenated blood away from the heart to tissues and cells; then back to heart; all the body cells receive blood and o2 systemic circulation
space between the two pleural cavities that contain the lungs and heart interpleural space
close to sternum mediastinum
heart location in canine and feline 3rd and 7th
equine and ruminants heart location 2nd and 6th
outer layer of the heart; protects the heart; loosely attaches heart to diaphragm pericardium
outer fibrous pericardium fibrous connective tissue
two layers with thin, fluid-filled, cavity between layers inner serous pericardium
directly adjacent to fibrous paricardium parietal layer
deep to fibrous pericardium; also called epicardium visceral layer
outside layer epicardium
thickest layer/cardiac muscle; striated involuntary myocardium
inner membranous lining endocardium
located at the top; atria is found, blood vessels enter and exit base
ventral caudal direction; tip of the left ventricle apex
ears of the heart auricle
groove separating the ventricles; contains fat and blood vessels; composition is coronary vessel interventricular sulci (groove)
What is the flow of blood through the heart? enters through vena cava in R atrium to the tricuspid valve to R ventricle to pulmonary valve to pulmonary artery to lungs to get oxygenated. Back through pulmonary vein to L atrium through mitral valve to L ventricle through aortic valve to aorta to body
What are the chambers of the heart? atria and ventricles
the heart pumps using what mechanisms? mechanical and electrical
valves stop what back flow
function of atria? recieve blood
function of venricle? discharge blood
vessels from heart arteries
vessels to heart veins
under low blood pressure, relatively thin atria walls
under higher blood pressure, thick (push blood to the rest of the body ventricle walls
arteries have _____ walls and veins have _____ walls thicker; thinner
collect blood from systemic circulation and enters into R atrium cranial and caudal vena cava
supplies the lungs; emergest from R ventricle;larger and more curved than vena cava pulmonary arteries
coming from lungs and enter L atrium pulmonary veins
emergest from L ventricle; largest artery in body site of highest blood pressure aorta
valve with 3 flaps right Av (tricuspid)
valve with 2 flaps left AV (mitral)(bicuspid)
prevents back flow into pumonary arteries pulmonary
connected to aorta aortic
seperated the R and L ventricles interventricular septum
connect free edges of the valves to muscles; prevent flaps from distending backwards during relaxation chordae tendineaa
left venricle contains oxygenated blood
right ventricle contains deoxygenated blood
vascular anatomy: inner layer of endothelial cells (simple squamous) Tunica intima
vascular anatomy: smooth muscles with some elastic tissue, thick in arteries, important in blood pressure regulation Tunica media
vascular anatomy: thin layer of fibrous elastic connective tissue Tunica externa
carry blood away from heart; high pressure arteries
branch off the aorta and travel toward the thoracic limbs subclavian arteries
branch off one or both subclavian arteries carotid arteries
artery emergest at the caudal aorta coccygeal artery
venous blood is under ___________ than arterial blood lower pressure
carry blood back to heart veins
carbon dioxide and oxygen are exchanged; nutrients and waste products exchanged capillaries
veins in the foreleg merge into larger and larger vessels to form brachycephalic veins
veins in the hind limbs merge to form iliac veins
heart contracts and blood is ejected from the atria to the ventricles & then from ventricles to arteries; cardiac contraction; Av valves close; semilunar valves open; blood pumped out systole pressure
heart relaxes and refills with blood to be ejected the next systolic cycles; av valves open; semilunar valves closed; ventricles fill with blood diastole pressure
stroke volume X heart rate cardiac output
average heart rate for dog 60-120 bpm
average heart rate for cat 140-220 bpm
averate heart rate for horse 25-50 bpm
heart rate can be affected by chemicals, hormones, temperature, behavior, and respiratory rate
these participate in conductivity SA node, AV node, bundle of His, Purkinje fibers
specialized area of cardiac muscle cells in the right atrium; generates electrical impules that trigger repeated beating of the heart sinoatrial node (SA)
cations are pumped out of a cell polarization (diastole)
gates in the cell wall open and cations flow back into the cell; causes electrical current depolarization (systole)
SA node automatically does this repolarization
impuse is generated at the ___; initially causes both atria to contract; blood pushed through AV valves into ventricles SA node
impulse travels down the muscle fibers to the AV node
electrical impulse then spreads through the bundle of His
carry impulses from the Bundle of His up into the ventricular myocardium Purkinje fibers
unique blood route through liver; assists with hemeostasis of blood glucose levels hepatic portal circulation
fetus receives o2 through placenta fetal blood ciculation
enters through the umbilical vein, flows through liver and the _____ into the caudal vena cava where it mixes with deoxygenated blood and fills right atrium ductus venosus
opening between the right and left atrium foramen ovale
allows blood that normally goes to the lungs from pulmonary arter to bypass and go directly to aorta ductus arteriousus
the sound that is heard when listening to heart auscultation
long sound when AV valves close lub
sharp sound when semilunar valves close dub
amount of blood that leaves the heart cardiac output
amound of blood ejected with each contraction stroke volume
how often the heart contracts heart rate
instrument with graph paper that moves under a sylus electrocardiograph
depolarization of the atria (domestic mail) P wave
waves created by ventricular depolarization; international mail QRS complex
repolarization of ventricles T wave
ventral aspect of each side of the neck in jugular groove jugular veins
craniomedial aspect of forelimb cephalic vein
medial aspect of hind limb femoral vein
lateral aspect of hind limb saphenous vein
milk vein caudal epigastric vein
ventral midline of tail coccygeal vein
Created by: maiken



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