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single cell organisms without nucleus prokaryote
multicellular organisms eukaryotes
bacteria is a prokaryote
protozoa are prokaryotes
outermost layer of a mammalian cell cell membrane
surrounds the nucleus nuclear membrane
barrier between the environment and cytoplasm cell membrane
governs movement of atoms and molecules in and out of cells cell membrane
another name for two layers of phospholipid molecules lipid bilayer
fatty acid tails are located inside
fatty acid tails are hydro phobic or philic? hydrophobic
heads are hydro phobic or philic hydrophilic
suspends proteins, constantly changing fluid mosaic
lipid soluble materials pass through the membrane with EASE or DIFFICULTY ease
proteins that span the width of the membrane integral
membranes bound to one side or the other of the membrane peripheral
glycocalyx is made of what? glycoproteins and glycolipids
glycoproteins job is to enance cell to cell adhesion
glycolipids job is to signal other cells via ligand binding
cilia and flagella originate from basal bodies
move in waves, propel fluid, mucus and debris cilia
attached to individual cells to propel cell forward flagella
give support to the cell cytoskeleton
cytoskeleton is composed of microtubules intermeidate fibers, microfilaments
list 8 organelles mitochondria, ribosomes, smooth ER, rough ER, golgi, lysosome, peroxisome, includions, centrioles
powerhouse of the cell, creates energy mitochondria
site of protein synthesis for intracellular and extracellular use ribosomes
has ribosomes on the surface rough ER
involved in protein production rough ER
involved in lipid production and storage smooth ER
ER is continuous with what 2 things? nuclear membrane and golgi
responsible for modification, packaging and storage of molecules golgi
formed by golgi, breakdowns nutrients for use lysosomes
contain enzymes for detoxification peroxisomes
convert free radicals to hydrogen peroxide peroxidase
convert hydrogen peroide to water catalase
engulfed metabolic stubstances inclusions
found in pairs, form bases of cilia & flagella, help organize spindle fibers centrioles
maintains heredity information and controls cell activity nucleus
4 parts of the nucleus nuclear envelope, nuceloplasm, chromatin,nucleolus,
contains nuclear pores nuclear envelope
made up of DNA and histones chromatin
location where ribosomal subunits are made nucleolus
genetic material DNA
intracellular inside the cell
extracellular outside the cell
interstitial between the cells
acids and bases are types of electrolytes/ions
excretory processes that require energy active
excretory processes that do not require energy passive
movement of molecules from area of high concentration to low concentration diffusion
diffusion is dependent on what 3 things molecule size, lipid solubility, molecular charge
movement of molecules through membrae with assistance of integral/carrier proten facilitated diffusion
does facilitated diffusion require energy? no
movement of water through membrane from area of high water concentration to low water concentration osmosis
force of water moving from one side of the membrane to the other osmotic pressure
osmosis or diffusion requires a selective membrane? osmosis
same concentration as intracellular fluid isotonic
fluid is more concentrated than cytoplasm hypertonic
cytoplasm is more concentrated than fluid hypotonic
cells burst qhen put in hypotonic solution
cells crenate when put in hypertonic soution
requires energy to move material active transport
changes in distribution of charged particles on either side of a membrane membrane potential
two types of endocytosis phagocytosis, pinocytosis
cell engulfing solid material phagocytosis
cell engulfing liquid (cell drinking) pinocytosis
movement of material out of the cell via vesicles exocytosis
process of cell division mitosis
phase when cell is growing, maturing and differentiating interphase
period between cell divisions interphase
interphase has 3 stages, what are they growth 1, synthetic, growth 2
when chromatin strands for chromosomes prophase
when nuclear envelope breaks down prophase
when chromosomes line up in center metaphase
when centromeres attach to spindle fibers metaphase
when chromatids are pulled apart anaphase
the thing that pulls the chromatids apart spindle fibers
where the cytoplasm constricts metaphyseal plate
when chromatin begins to unravel at the poles of the cell telophase
when the nuclear envelope appears telophase
the end of this phase is marked by cytokinesis telophase
process by which genetic information on DNA is copied to mRna transcription
process by which protein is created from mRNA translation
occur when there are errors in DNA replication mutation
anything causing a genetic mutation mutagen
Created by: DrCariWise



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