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FSTY 60 - Urban

Urban Forest Science Glossary Definitions for week 12 Test

QuestionAnswer
Cultivar A plant of group of plants of a particular species that has favourable characteristics. eg. Thornless Honey Locust
Specific Epithet Describes the name of species. Refers directly to the latin lower case letter. Eg. Acer saccharum where "saccharum" is the specific epithet.
Hybrid The offspring derived from the cross-breeding of two different species. Unlike a cultivar, hybrids are intential cross breed mutations--whereas cultivar characteristics occur naturally.
Family Refers to Scientific Nomeclature. Rember "Keep Pond Clean Or Froggy Gets Sick" for developing scientific names. Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, FAMILY, Genus, and Species. official Definition: taxonomic group under the order level above the genus level
Arboriculture The practice and study of the care of trees and other woody plants in the landscape.
Stratify The action of breaking seed dormancy to allow the seed to germinate. This is done by simulating nature weather characteristics eg. soaking (in fall rains/spring melt) and chilling (winter).
Cotyledon This is the pretty little seed leaf which is visible in a seed disection. Official definition: One of the first leaves to form in an Embryo.
Genotype This refers to the genetic make up of a cell or organism (tree), where as a phenotype refers to the effect the environment in which a cell or organism has developed.
Epigeal Germination Refers to cotyledons which emerge above the soil with the testa (seed caseing) present. This is the case for conifers whereas our hardwoods display hypogeal germination: leaving the testa in the ground.
Included Bark Bark that becomes embedded in a crotch (union) between branch and trunk or between codominant stems. It cause a stuctually compromised connection. Neat eh?
*Testa The hard protective outerlayer of a seed. essentially the shell that protects and contains the working parts of the seed.
*Endosperm The starchy food source upon which the embryo will feed during germination. Can also work as a cushion to prevent damage to seed during the dissemination process/falling off the top of a big f***in tree.
*Monoecious A tree repoductive method which produces both sexes of imperfect flowers(male or female, not both)on a single tree.
*Dioecious A tree repoductive method which produces only one sex of imperfect flowers(male or female, not both)on a single tree. The individual trees are either male of female.
*Polygamous Trees which produce male and female imperfect flowers as well as perfect flowers.
*Perfect Flowers Flowers with both male and female parts. Layman's terms: Flowers that contain all the necessary bits for hanky-panky.
*Imperfect Flowers Flowers which contain EITHER male or female parts-->not both.
*Seed Dormancy The preventative measure built into seeds from temperate climates (climates with 4 distict seasons) which prevents them from germinating out of season.
*Hardwood cuttings Refers to cuttings of deciduous trees taken in winter during tree dormancy. Not exclusively for hardwoods but refers, rather, to the timing the cutting was taken specifically after the growing season has ended and the limb has hardened off.
*Softwood cuttings A cutting taken from an actively growing or emerging shoot of trees and shrubs.
*Root cuttings taken close to the main stem while stem is dormant.
*Layering Natural process in which a branch that touches ground may root and become an individual tree of a identical genotype.
*Budding Similar to grafting, however a branch is not removed and attached to another tree, in this case a bud is cut from the scion and attached to another tree that has been prepared by a similar process. if this does not make sense, look at lecture 3 slide 22.
*Grafting The process of removing a branch and attaching it to a different root system. allows that the attached branch will grow of its own genotype while subsisting on another's root system.
Scion The top part of a graft with leaves and buds that is grafter to the root stock.
Desication Severe drying out. Dehydration. Refers to the danger of botching a graft. Essentially if you don't get the right connection, your graft will succomb to desication and go ka-put.
Callus Undifferentiaed tissue formed by the cambium, usually as the result of wounding. (this is in contrast to *woundwood: lignified, differentiated tissues produced on woody plants as a reponse to wounding.)
Stomata singular: Stomates. These are the small pore that determine the amount of gases exchanged and the amount of water evaporated. Located between gaurd cells on the undersides of leaves and other green plant parts.
Ramet A freshly grafted tree. A scion attached to an existing root sytem.
Xylem Vascular tissue on the interior of the cambium layer that conduct fluids and nutrients up through the tree. Becomes wood after lignifying.
Phloem Vascular tissue on the outside of the cambium layer that conducts photosynthates (sugars/carbs produced via photosynthesis)and growth regulators. Transports both up AND down the tree.
parenchyma cells Thin-walled, living cells essential in photosynthesis, radial transport, energy storage, and production of protective compounds.
branch bark ridge Raised strip of bark at the top of the branch union, where the growth and expansion of the trunk or parent stem and adjoining branch push the bark into a ridge.
epicormic branching branches arising from latent or adventitious buds. Often a result of stress on the tree.
Compartmentalization of Decay in trees Natural defense process in trees by which chemical and physical boundaries are created that act to limit the spread of disease and decay organisms(CODIT). So a tree will never replace or "heal" wood but it was make a box around a wound to prevent decay.
Flush Cut pruning cut through and or removing the branch collar, cause unnecessary injury to the trunk or parent stem.
Woundwood Lignifed, differentiated tissues produced on woody plants as a reponse to wounding. Similar to callus but tissues in callus is undifferentiated and without lignin.
Rays parenchyma tissues that extend radially across the xylem and phloem of a tree and function in stransport, storage, structual strength, and defense. Also responsible for wall III of CODIT-a very strong wall. Represented well in Or, Ow, Be lumber samples.
Scaffold Limb Official def: Permanent or structual branches that form the scaffold architecture or structure of a tree. Better def: the branches that radiate off of the main bole of the tree, essentially the big old branches that are connected to the trunk directly.
Shake Seperation between growth rings do to a natural twisting of bole on account of large branches swaying with wind and weather. At stump face of a log shake will present itself as cracks following growth rings. not to be confused with check.
Whorl leaves, twigs or brnaches arranged in a circle around a point on the stem.
Plant Hardiness The climactic area where a plant will flourish naturally. Based on the average annual minimum temeperature of a region.
Topping Inappropriate pruning technique to reduce tree size. Cutting back a tree to a predetermined crown limit, often at internodes.
Subordination Pruning to reduse the size and ensuing groth of a branch in relation to other branches or leaders. also called reduction pruning. take a big'ol branch and cut it off at a smaller branch union--ensuring the smaller branch is 1/3 the size of the biggen.
Reaction Wood wood fored in leaning or crooked stems or on lower or upper sides of of branches as a means of counteracting the effects of gravity. There are two types: compression wood on the underside; and tension wood on the upperside.
Angiosperm Trees/plants with seeds borne in an ovary. cosisting of two large groups: monocotyledons (grasses, palms, and related plants) and dicotyledons (woody plants). Applies to deciduous trees. All the trees on Angeline are angiosperms...remember this way.
Gymnosperm Trees/plants with exposed seeds, usually with cones. Think conifers. "gymn" comes from greek gymnasium where "men exercise naked". Imagine the seeds having not clothes like an apple or peach where the fruit is the clothing.
Dioecious Male and female flowers on seperate trees. Essentially there are male and female trees.
Monoecious Male and female flowers on the same tree, but not in the same flower.
Biomechanics Principles of mechanical design to biological structurtes--how trees stand
Created by: gcockwell