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VET 1250 Week 1

Blood and Immunity

study of blood hematology
study of immune system immunology
what are the 3 functions of blood transportation, regulation, defense
plasma, serum (+-55%) liquid/fluid portion of blood
erythrocytes 99%, leukocytes, >1% thrombocytes >1% of this portion cellular portion
blood that is circulating whole blood
albumin, globulin, fibrinogin plasma proteins
contain anticoagulants such as heperin or EDTA which work by tying up calcium; if centrifuged the fluid that rises to the top is plasma; do not freeze unless has been centrifuged purple top tubes
allow blood to clot, no anticoagulant, if centrifuged the fliud that rises to the top is serum. no fibrinogin present red top tubes
with clotting factors plasma
without clotting factors serum
fibrinogin, prothrombin, calcium clotting factors
any foreign protein antigen
protein created in body against antigen antibody
92-93% of plasma is this water
you can find systemic drugs in the plasma/serum of the blood
albumin, globulins, fibrinogen; oxygen, CO2, and nitrogen; lipids, amino acids, metabolic wastes, and electrolytes substances dissolved or suspended in plasma
carry O2 RBC
help prevent leaks from damaged blood vessels platelets
immune cells WBC
granulocyte cells neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils
agranulocyte cells lymphocyte, monocyte
general term for production of all blood cells hematopoiesis
most widely used hematology stain; polychromatic stains Wright's stain
contain hemoglobin; carry O2; round anuclear biconcave disks erythrocytes
deformable but not elastic, more membrane surface for diffusion of O2, shorter diffusion distance functions of RBCs
dogs have the largest in size RBCs
large with lots of dark blue cytoplasma (nucleated RBC) immature RBC
lavender color cytoplasma polychromasia
will have a red cytoplasma, no nucleus because they are concave in shape mature RBC
composed of 2 parts, binds with O2 hemoglobin
heme pigment portion, contains iron atoms that carry O2 (red bone marrow), produced in mitochondria
globin protein portion, produced in ribosomes
breakdown product from heme which can give a yellow color bilirubin
carrying 02 oxyhemoglobin
given up O2 deoxyhemoglobin
embryonic hemoglobin HbE
fetal hemoglobin HbF
adult hemoglobin Hb
where erythropoiesis takes place 1. bone marrow 2. spleen 3. liver 4. kidney
hematopoietic stem cells stimulated by erythropoietin produced in the kidney when it detects hypoxia to begin production of RBC PPSC pluripotent stem cells
life span of RBCs dogs 110 days cats 68 days
enzyme activity decreases, cells loses is deformability rbc senescence
macrophages(especially in spleen) remove senescent RBCs from circulation; rbcs broken down into components that can be easily recycled in the body or eliminated as waste material extravascular hemolysis 1
rbc membrane destroyed; iron transported to the red bone marrow; amino acids from globin molecultes are transported to liver for reuse; heme converted to bilirubin bound to albumin and transported to liver extravascular hemolysis 2
bilirubin is conjugated to glucoronic acid; conjugated bilirubin excreted as a bile pigment into intestines; converted into urobilinogen by bacteria extravascular hemolysis 3
rbcs in circulation subjected to stresses; unconjugated hemoglobin attached to haptoglobin (transport plasma protein) and transported to macrophages in liver for further breakdown intravascular hemolysis 1
processed as with extravascular hemolysis; excess unconjugated hemoglobin in the plasma intravascular hemolysis 2
results in pink, red, or brown plasma hemoglobinemia
eliminated urine can be red hemoglobinuria
produced in bone marrow; polymorphonuclear; provide defense for body against foreign invaders leukocyte
polymorphonuclear; take 3-6 days to produce in bone marrow; most numerous WBC; granules don't stain; phagocytosis; granules are lysosomes neutrophils
segments of neutrophils are joined by chromatin
released from bone marrow before mature (neutrophils) band neutrophil
how long are neutrophils in circulation before entering the tissue 10 hours average
process by which neutrophils leave blood vessels by squeezing between the cells of the edothelium diapedesis
process by which neutrophils and other cells are attracted by inflammatory chemicals produced by microorganisms chemotaxis
take 2-6 days to produce from PPSC in bone marrow; nuclear structure similar to neutrophils; distinctive red/pink staining; functions are anti inflammatory, parasitic phagocytosis; humoral immune response eosinophils
rare finding in all species, produced in bone marrow, gray/blue staining, function not clear, share some characteristics with mast cells; most commonly have 2-3 lobed nucleus basophils
primary circulating WBC in ruminants and pigs; most reside in lymphoid tissues; non phagocytotic; nucleus takes up most of cell lymphocytes
first line of defense; processed in thymus; cell-mediated immunity; activates B cells T lymphocytes
produced in bone marrow; 14+ days to produce immunoglobulin; lymph nodes and spleen; produce specific antibody to an antigen;responsible for antibody protection; converted to plasma cell which produce antibody can't do on own B lymphocytes
don't have to be activated; come into contact and can kill; like to destroy cancer cells natural killer cells
survive in the lymphoid tissue and wait for second exposure to the same antigen memory cells
5-6% of circulating WBCs; produced in bone marrow; blue/gray cytoplasm probably with vacuoles; cytoplasm can appear to have fine granules; largest of peripheral WBCs; NOT segmented; horseshoe shape or not round; major phagocytic cells, largest WBC monocytes
circulating are round with numerous small purple granules; contain clotting factors and calcium thrombocytes
production of platelets thrombopoiesis
process by which blood is prevented from leaking out of damaged blood vessels hemostatsis
maintains vascular integrity; platelet plug formation; stabilization of plug by the process of fibrin formation 3 functions of thrombocytes
strands form a netlike mesh around and through the platelets fibrin
there are ___ clotting factors 13
series of vessels/ducts; carry excess interstitial fluid to blood vessels near the heart where fluid is put back into the bloodstream; includes lymph tissue scattered throughout body lymphatic system
lymph nodes; spleen; thymus; tonsils; and gut associated lymph tissue (GALT) lymphoid organs
consists of blood cells; nutrients; hormones lymph
some _____ cells circulate from blood to interstitial fluid to lymph and back to blood T
are found primarily in lymph tissue and rarely recirculate B cells
3 compartments of lymphatic system bone marrow, central lymphoid organs, peripheral lymphoid organs
carry excess fluid away; follow the path of veins; one way valves to prevent back flow lymph capillaries
lymph vessels join to form the ________ and dump into the ______ thoracic duct; vena cava
lymph is also circulated by the ____ same as blood heart
lymph from the digestive system chyle
what are the 4 functions of the lymph nodes removal of excess fluid; waste material transport; filtration of lymph to prevent spread of disease; protein transport
small kidney bean shaped structures located at various points along the lymph vessels lymph nodes
where are the lymph nodes located submandibular; prescapular; sternal; axillary; superficial inguinal; popliteal
tongue shaped organ located on the left side of the abdomen; largest lymphoid organ in body spleen
blood storage; removal of foreign material; removal of dead, dying, abnormal RBCs; lymphocyte cloning during immune response spleen functions
lymphoid organ located in the caudal neck and cranial thoracic region on either side of the trachea; most prominent in young animals; produces T-cells thymus
nodules of peripheral lymphoid tissue; not covered with a capsule; found close to mucosal surfaces all over the body tonsils
____ in the pharyngeal region prevent spread of infection into the respiratory or digestive system tonsils
lymphoid tissue found in the intestinal mucosa and submucosa; classified as both central and peripheral lymphoid tissue Gut Associated Lymph Tissue GALT
phagocytosis; lysis of foreign cell membranes; inactivation of pathogenic organisms or chemical substances; precipitation or agglutination of cells or molecules actions of immune system
mechanical barriers; chemical barriers; inflammatory response; phagocytosis; natural killer cells; interferon nonspecific immunity
skin and mucous membranes mechanical barriers
hydrochloric acid in the gastric mucosa is an example chemical barriers
tissue damage provokes release of chemical mediators like histamine and other chemotactic factors inflammatory response
come in direct contact with tumor cells and tissue cells that have been invaded by viruses and destroy them natural killer cells
protein produced by a cell after it has been infected by a virus; inhibits further development and spread of the virus interferon
enzymes in plasma that can be activated by the attachment of an antibody to an antigen complement group of enzymes
cascade of reactions that results in antigen lysis complement fixation
includes T and B cells; response is initiated as a reaction to the epitope on the invading cells wall; lymphocytes primarily involved but may depend on the actions of other cells for activation; both cell-mediated and humoral specific immunity
3 constants that are in both cell-mediated and humoral immunity 1. response only initiated after antigen enters body. 2. response aimed specifically against the antigen present. 3. if antigen enters body 2nd time there will be a memory of it.
T-cell attaches to antigenic site and becomes sensitized; divides many times cloning itself to form cytotoxic cells, memory cells, helper T cells, suppressor T cells cell-mediated
secrete cytokines that act as a poison and kill the cell cytotoxic cells
remember a specific antigen and stimulate a faster and more intense response if that same antigen is presented to the body memory cells
secrete lymphokines that stimulate the production of B cells helper T cells
inhibit helper and cytotoxic T cells by negative feedback Suppressor T cells
production of antibodies (immunoglobulins) Humoral immunity/ antibody mediated
first Ig made during first exposure to an antigen IgG
associated with an allergic response IgE
infection naturally acquired active
antibodies pass from mother to fetus naturally acquired passive
vaccine artificially acquired active
injection of immune serum/ antiserum artificially acquired passive
Created by: maiken



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